1215 K StreetSuite 1100Sacramento, CA 95814916.446.2520 (voice)916.446.8166 (fax)916.446.8802 (tty-tdd)firstname.lastname@example.org (email)
This report is a compendium of research on issues related to rape, sexual assault and violence. While all efforts have been made to include research from as many sources as possible, it is inevitable that other valuable sources of research may con-tain information not included in this report. Statistics cited in this report reflect the importance of including
diverse information on these issues. Not all studies cited are scientifically based or have been peer reviewed,
however, statistics derived from those sources provide important and credi-ble information on these issues. For this reason, full reference informa-tion has been provided for each sta-tistic. Additionally, all studies are available through the CALCASA Rape Prevention Resource Center Library.
California Coalition Against Sexual Assault Rape Prevention Resource Center
RESEARCH ON RAPE AND VIOLENCE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION ONE: RAPE/SEXUAL ASSAULT - GENERAL . . . . . . .1
Rape/Sexual Assault Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Rape/Sexual Assault Prevalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Revictimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Aftermath -Emergency Contraception/Pregnancy . . . . . .9
Aftermath -Emotional/Physical Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Aftermath-Societal Costs/Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Aftermath -Vicarious Trauma/Secondary Victimization . .15
Perpetrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Adjudication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Self-Defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
SECTION TWO: RAPE/SEXUAL ASSAULT VICTIMIZATION . . .27
Acquaintance Rape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Child Victimization (Including Incest) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Date Rape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Persons with Disabilities and Sexual Assault . . . . . . . . .30
Sexual Violence Against Persons who are Deaf . . . . . . .32
Drug Facilitated Rape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Elder Abuse: Sexual Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Gang Rape (Multiple Assailants) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Sexual Violence Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and
Transgendered (LGBT) Individuals: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
2008 Report Research on Rape and Violence
International Violence Against Women . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Same-Sex Sexual Assault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Male Victims ofSexual Assault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Sexual Violence Against Women of Color . . . . . . . . . . .45
Spousal/Partner Rape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Statutory Rape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Sexual Harassment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Online Sexual Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
SECTION THREE: STALKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Cyber Stalking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Campus Stalking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Stalking Prevalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
SECTION FOUR: SEXUAL VIOLENCE
IN PARTICULAR SETTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Campus Sexual Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Prison Rape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Abuse by Professionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Sexual Assault/Harassment in the Military . . . . . . . . . .75
Rural Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Violence and the Homeless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
SECTION FIVE: VIOLENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Physical Assault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Teen Dating Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Workplace Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
School Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
SECTION SIX: SOCIALISSUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Pornography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Prostitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Socialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Sex Trafficking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
2008 Report Research on Rape and Violence
1 Planty, M. (2002). Third-Party Involvement in Violent Crime, 1993-1999. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice 1 Snyder, H.N. 2000. Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident and Offender Characteristics. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
2 Snyder, H.N. (2000). Sexual Assaults of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident and Offender Characteristics. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
3 Greenfeld, Lawrence A., 1997. Sex Offenses and Offenders: An Analysis of Data on Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
4 Greenfeld, 1997.
5 National Crime Victimization Survey. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, 1996.
6 National Crime Victimization Survey. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, 1996.
7 Violence against Women, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Dept. of Justice, 1994.
Rape/Sexual Assault Characteristics
According to data collected in the National Crime Victimization Survey, of the nearly 400,000 rapes and sexual assaults reported between 1993-1999, 29% reportedly took place in the presence of a third party. In 11% of the reported sexual assault/rape incidents, one or more victims were assaulted.1
According to a study of National Incident-Based Reporting System data, sexual assaults of children under the age of twelve tends to increase from the hours of 6 a.m. to 3 p.m. and taper off through other hours of the day. For juveniles under the age of 6, victimization rates increase near tradi-tional meal periods of 8 a.m., noon and 6 p.m. For victims over the age of 18, victimizations increase after 6 p.m.2
According to the U.S. Department of Justice, victims of rape and sexual assault report that in nearly 3 out of 4 incidents, the offender was not a stranger. Based on police-recorded incident data, in 90% of the rapes of children younger than 12, the child knew the offender. Two-thirds of the victims 18 to 29 years old had a prior relationship with the rapist.3
According to the U.S. Department of Justice, nearly 6 out of 10 rape/sexual assault incidents are reported by victims to have occurred in their own home or at the home of a friend, relative, or neighbor.4
Teens 16 to 19 were three and one-half times more likely than the general population to be victims of rape, attempt-ed rape, or sexual assault.5
Those with a household income under $7,500 were twice as likely as the general population to be victims of a sexual assault.6
68% of rapes occur between the hours of 6 p.m. and 6 a.m.7
Sexual assaults committed by juveniles are most likely to occur between the hours of 3p.m. and 4p.m. On school days more than 14% of all rapes committed by juveniles takes place between the hours of 3p.m. and 7p.m. and between noon and 1p.m. on non-school days.8
In 29% of rapes, the offender used a weapon.9
According to the U.S. Department of Justice, an estimated 91% of the victims of rape and sexual assault are female and 9% are male. Nearly 99% of the offenders they described in single-victim incidents are male.10
The U.S. Department of Justice reported in 1997 that per capita rates of rape/sexual assault are highest among residents age 16 to 19, low-income residents, and urban residents. They found no significant differences in the rate of rape/sexual assault among racial groups.11
51% of the sexual assault cases studied in the Women’s Safety Project survey were committed against young women between 16 and 21 years old.12
80%-90% of violent crimes against women are committed by someone of the same racial background as the victim.13
The National Violence Against Women Survey found that rape is a crime committed primarily against youth. Of the women who reported being raped at some time in their lives, 21.6% were under 12 years old, 32.4% were 12-17 years old, 29% were 18-24 years old, and 16.6% were over 25 years old when they were first raped. This trans-lates to 54% of women victims who were under 18 at the time of the first rape and 83% of women victims who were under the age of 25.14
Among victims of offenders acting alone, men were just as likely to be victimized by a stranger, as by someone they knew. By contrast, women were more likely to be victim-ized by known offenders than by strangers. Men were about twice as likely as women to experience acts of vio-lence by strangers.15
Reviewing 766 sexual assault cases presenting to an urban sexual assault clinic, researchers found that adolescent sexual assault victims (age 13-17 years) were less likely than adult victims to have their assault involve weapons or physical coercion.16
According to the results of the National Survey of Adolescents, 8% of the sample (n=4,023) reported having been victims of sexual assault. 74% of these sexual assault victims indicated that they had been assaulted by someone they knew well, 32% were friends, 21% were family mem-bers, 23% were strangers. Nearly 31% of these sexual assaults occurred in the victim’s home or in the victim’s
8 Snyder, H and Sickmund, M, 1999. Juvenile Offenders and Victims. National Report. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
9 Violence against Women, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Dept. of Justice, 1994.
12 Randall, Melanie and Haskell, Lori. 1995. “Sexual Violence in Women’s Lives: Findings from the Women’s Safety Project, A Community-Based Survey.” Violence Against Women 1 (1): 6-31.
13 U.S. Department of Justice, 1994. Violence Against Women. Rockville, Maryland: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
14 Tjaden, Patricia and Thoennes, Nancy, November 1998. Prevalence, Incident, and Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, Office of the Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
15 Bachman, Ronet, 1995. Violence against Women: Estimates from the Redesigned Survey. Bureau of Justice Statistics: National Crime Victimization Survey: 3.
16 Jones, J.S., Rossman, L., Wynn, B.N., Dunnuck, C. and Schwartz, N. (2003). “Comparative Analysis of Adult Versus Adolescent Sexual Assault: Epidemiology and Patterns of Anogenital Injury.” Academic Emergency Medicine. Vol. 10, No. 8, 872-877.
17 Kilpatrick, D.G., Saunders, B.E., and Smith,
D.W. (2003). Youth Victimization: Prevalence and
Implications. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs,
U.S. Department of Justice
18 American Medical Association. 1997. Facts About Sexual Assault. Chicago, Illinois: American Medical Association.
19 Federal Bureau of Investigations. (2006). Crime in the United States, 2005. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.
20 Rand, M. and Catalano, S. 2007. Criminal Victimization 2006. Washington, D.C. Bureau of Justice Statistics,
U.S. Department of Justice.
21 California Department of Justice. 2007. Crime in California, 2004. Sacramento, CA: Office of the California Attorney General
22 Federal Bureau of Investigations. 2006 Crime Clock. Washington, D.C.
23 California Department of Justice. 2006. Crime Clock: California Crimes 2005. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Justice, Division of Criminal Justice Information Services.
24 Federal Bureau of Investigations. 2000. Uniform Crime Reports for the United States 2000.
25 California Department of Justice. 2000. Crime and Delinquency in California 2000.
26 Federal Bureau of Investigations. 2000. Uniform Crime Reports for the United States 2000.
neighborhood (24%), another 15% occurred at the victim’s school.17
Rape/Sexual Assault Prevalence
Rape and sexual assault prevalence is difficult to determine because the crime is significantly underreported. There are two annual government indicators available. One is the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report (UCR), which only includes rapes reported to law enforcement and uses a narrower definition of forcible rape. The other is the U.S. Department of Justice’s National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), which involves a survey of U.S. households and tallies offenses reported by victims age 12 and older. Both esti-mates are thought by many experts to be low.18 Results of the UCR indicated approximately 92,455 had been reported in 2006, a decrease of 2.0% from 2005.19 However, results of the NCVS (using new methodology) released in December 2007 estimated 272,350 sexual assaults against victims over the age of 12 in the United States in 2006.20
In California there were 9,213 forcible rapes reported to law enforcement in 2006, marking a decrease of 1.4% from 2005.21
2006 Crime Clock calculations indicate that in the United States there is one forcible rape every 5.7 minutes.22
According to 2005 Crime Clock calculation, there is one forcible rape every 56 minutes in California.23
Distribution of the number of reported forcible rapes over a 12 month period revealed that the highest number of rapes are reported in the month of July (9.5%) and the fewest numbers of forcible rapes are reported in the month of December. (6.8%)24
In California there were 9,785 forcible rapes reported to law enforcement in 2000. 83.8% were completed rapes and 16.2% were attempted rapes. Trends indicate that from 1995 to 2000 the number of reported forcible rapes overall had decreased 13.7%, however, the rate of reported forcible rapes for 2000 represented an increase of 2.5% from the number reported in 1999.25
Nationwide, rapes by force accounted for 89.5% of the rapes reported to law enforcement in 2000. 10.5% were attempted rapes.26
An estimated 302,100 women and 92,700 men are forcibly raped each year in the United States.27
Around the world at least 1 woman in every 3 has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her life-time. Most often the abuser is a member of her own family.28
According to the National Institute of Justice, the number of rape and sexual assault victims in 1992 was estimated at
1.1 million. The definition of rape and sexual assault used here is slightly broader, and the age range is broader, than in the National Crime Victimization Survey.29
According to a study conducted by the National Victim Center, 1.3 women (age 18 and over) in the United States are forcibly raped each minute. That translates to 78 per hour, 1,871 per day, or 683,000 per year.30
Overall crime figures for California from January to June 2000 show a 9.7% increase in the number of reported forcible rapes when compared to the same period in 1999.31
Results of the Women’s Safety Project, a community-based survey of sexual violence in women’s lives based on in-depth face-to-face interviews with 420 women, show that:32
When looking at the total of all experiences and kinds of sexual abuse, sexual assault, physical assault, and other forms of sexual intrusion, 97.6% reported that they had personally experienced some form of sexual violation, and
Using a definition of rape that includes only com-pleted forced sexual intercourse in adulthood (after 16 years of age), the Women’s Safety Project survey of 420 women found that 40% of the women inter-viewed had experienced rape at least once in adult hood. Extrapolating from this finding, this means that more than 1 in 3 women are raped in adult hood. In terms of attempted rapes, the study found that 31% of the women surveyed reported at least one experience of attempted rape in adulthood. When categories of rape and attempted rape are combined, the results of the study show that 50.5% of the women reported at least one experience of sexual assault at the level of rape or attempted rape at or after the age of 16 years.
27 Tjaden, Patricia and Thoennes, Nancy, November 1998.
28 Population Information Program. Population Reports: Ending Violence Against Women, 2000. Population Information Program, Center for Communications Programs. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health and Center for Healthcare Gender Equity.
29 Travis, Jeremy. 1996. The Extent and Cost of Crime Victimization: A New Look. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
30 Kilpatrick DJ, Edmunds CN, Seymour A, 1992. Rape in America: A Report to the Nation, Arlington VA: National Victim Center.
31 Criminal Justice Statistics Center, December 2000. Crime 2000 in Selected California Jurisdictions. January-June: Preliminary Report. California Department of Justice. Sacramento, CA.
32 Randall and Haskell, 1995.
According to National Crime Victimization Survey data, in 2006, the percentage of rape/sexual assault victims report-ing their victimization to the police increased to 41% com-pared to the percentage reporting in 2005 (38%).33
In a sample of 263 adolescent females who reported unwanted sexual experiences in the National Survey of Adolescents:34
The most often cited reason for not disclosing or delaying disclosure was embarrassment.
Young women whose unwanted sexual experience occurred between the ages of 7 and 13 were more likely to tell an adult. Older adolescents were more likely to tell a peer. Children under the age of seven at the onset of the abuse were unlikely to tell immediately.
The closer the relationship to the perpetrator (knowing the perpetrator or the perpetrator being a family member) made immediate disclosure (within a month of occurrence) unlikely.
13% of the sexual assault cases disclosed in the National Survey of Adolescents were reported to the police, 6% to child protective services, 5% to school authorities, 1.3% to other authorities. The majority of the sexual assaults (86%) went unreported.35
A study to determine which factors were likely to influence rape/sexual assault victims (n=1,118) to seek or delay treatment found that women who had been forced to per-form fellatio or who had been assaulted with a knife (or other sharp weapon) were more likely to seek treatment within 12 hours of the attack. Women who sustained a physical injury were likely to seek treatment within 24 hours. When the perpetrator was a stranger, victims were more likely to seek treatment immediately as opposed to women who had known their attacker for a long period of time prior to the attack. Women who were attacked by a partner or acquaintance were more likely to present for treatment 2 or more days after the attack. Women who presented for treatment within the first 12 hours after the attack were more likely to have police assistance in bring-ing them to the hospital treatment center and were more likely to remain involved following treatment.36
Research on Rape and Violence
33 Rand, M. and Catalano, S. (2007). Crime Victimization, 2006. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics,
U.S. Department of Justice.
34 Krogan, S. (2004). “Disclosing Unwanted Sexual Experiences: Results from a National Sample of Adolescent Women.” Child Abuse and Neglect Vol. 28, No. 2, 147-165.
35 Kilpatrick, D.G., Saunders, B.E. et al. (2003).
The closer the relationship between the female victim and the offender, the greater the likelihood that the police would not be told about the assault. When the offender was a current or former husband, 75% of all victimizations were not reported.37
When the offender was a stranger, 54% of completed rapes and 44% of attempted rapes and 34 % of all sexual assaults were not reported. When the offender was a friend or acquaintance: 61% of completed rapes, 71% of attempted rapes and 82% of sexual assaults were not reported.38
59 % of rape victims who reported their rapes to police (compared to 17% of victims of unreported rapes) received medical attention.39
Most often cited reasons for not reporting their victimiza-tion to law enforcement were:40
Completed rape (forced sexual intercourse): personal matter . 23%, fear of reprisal . 16%, belief that police are biased . 6%
Attempted rape: personal matter . 17%, fear of reprisal 11%, protecting the offender . 10%
Sexual Assault (unwanted sexual contact): personal matter . 25%, reported to another official . 12%, fear of reprisal . 11%
Only 16% of rapes are ever reported to the police. In a survey of victims who did not report rape or attempted rape to the police, the following was found as to why no report was made: 43% thought nothing could be done, 27% felt it was a private matter, 12% were afraid of police response, and 12% felt it was not important enough.41
In 1999, rape or sexual assault was the violent crime least often reported to law enforcement (28%).42
Three studies investigated the appropriateness of calling the police. In particular, the studies focused on whether and how the victim’s consumption of alcohol affected nor-mative advice to report the crime, as opposed to other options. Across the three studies, subjects viewed reporting as more appropriate for female victims, for victims who were 21 or older, and for victims who had not been drink-ing. Subjects viewed reporting as particularly inappropriate when the victim was underage and had been drinking. For sexual assault, subjects were significantly more likely to suggest calling the police when the perpetrator of the sex-
36 Millar, G., Stermac, L., & Addison, M. (2002)“Immediate and Delayed Treatment Seeking Among Adult Sexual Assault Victims” Women & Health Vol. 35, No. 1. 53-63.
37 Millar et al., (2002).
41 Kilpatrick et al., 1992.
42 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000. Criminal Victimization 1999: Changes 1998-99 with Trends 1993-99. National Crime Victimization Survey. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
43 “Normative Advice to Campus Crime Victims: Effects of Gender, Age, and Alcohol,” Violence and Victims, Volume 14, Number 4, 1999.
454 Neville, Helen A.; Pugh, Aalece O. “General and Culture-Specific Factors Influencing African American Women’s Reporting Patterns and Perceived Social Support Following Sexual Assault,” Violence Against Women, Vol. 3, No. 4, August 1997: 361-381.
45 Bachman, Ronet, 1995, Violence against Women: Estimates from the Redesigned Survey. Bureau of Justice Statistics: National Crime Victimization Survey: 5.
46 Wiehe & Richards, 1995. Intimate Betrayal: Understanding and Responding to the Trauma of Acquaintance Rape, Sage Publications, New York.
47 Noll, J., Horowitz, L., Bonano, G., Trickett, P., Putnam, F. (2003). “Revictimization and Self-Harm in Females who Experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse” Journal of Interpersonal Violence Vol. 18, No. 12: 1452-1471.
48 Humphrey, J.A., & White, J.W. (2000). “Women’s Vulnerability to Sexual Assault from Adolescence to Young Adulthood” Journal of Adolescent Health Vol. 27, No. 6, 419-424.
ual assault was a stranger than when he was her boyfriend. Also, female subjects were less likely to advise reporting when the victim had been drinking and was assaulted by her boyfriend.43
In a study of 29 African American sexual assault survivors, it was found that only 17% reported the assault to the police.44
Compared to violence without injury, a higher percentage of violence against women involving injury was reported to police. Victimizations that resulted in injury were equally likely to be reported to police regardless of the relationship between the victim and offender.45
A study of 278 acquaintance rape survivors indicated that 97% informed at least one close confidant, 28% informed the police.46
In a longitudinal study spanning an average of seven years per participant, data indicated that participants who reported sexual abuse in childhood or early adolescence were twice as likely to have been raped or sexually assaulted as an older adolescent or young adult than par-ticipants with no history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse.47
70% of the women surveyed at a Southeastern university had experienced some form of sexual victimization between age 14 and the end of their 4th year of college. Victimization was highest (50%) in adolescence and declined steadily during each year in college. Women who had had a coercive experience before age 14 were signifi-cantly more likely than others to have a similar experience during adolescence. Women victimized in adolescence were nearly five times as likely than others to experience some form of sexual coercion during their first year in col-lege. The type of sexual coercion with the highest probabil-ity of being repeated was rape or attempted rape.48
Child sexual abuse is associated with revictimization; 55.4% of women who reported childhood sexual abuse reported subsequent rape, whereas 20.2% of the women who reported no childhood abuse reported rape. The odds ratio indicated that women with a childhood history of sexual abuse were 4.7 times more likely to have been sub-sequently raped. Women reporting a combined childhood
Research on Rape and Violence
history of physical and sexual abuse reported the highest rape rates.49
42% of the women who were victims of date or acquain-tance rape said they had sex again with the men who assaulted them.50
In a 1999 longitudinal study of 3,006 women, researchers found that women who had been victimized before were 7 times more likely to be raped again.51
A 1997 New Zealand study found that women who had been sexually abused as children were between 2 and 11 times more likely to be raped or experience an attempted rape. The differences depended on the extent of the child sexual abuse the person had experienced, with completed intercourse placing survivors at the highest risk. Victims of sexual abuse that did not involve any physical contact with the victim (indecent exposure, masturbation, etc.) were 2 times as likely to be assaulted again, victims of sexual abuse that involved physical contact, but no intercourse were 5 times as likely, and victims of sexual abuse that consisted of intercourse resulted in the victim being 11 times more likely to be raped versus a person who had never experienced any sexual abuse during their childhood.52
Of 219 female undergraduates, those that were child sexual abuse survivors were more than 2 times as likely as nonabused women to experience physical dating aggres-sion and 3 times as likely to experience psychological aggression in a dating relationship.53
In a 1994 survey of 243 women, including significant numbers of African-American, Latina, and Asian-American women, those with a history of child sexual abuse were three times as likely to be raped as an adult, than women without a history of child sexual abuse.54
Aftermath . Emergency Contraception/Pregnancy
A longitudinal study to assess the prevalence and inci-dence of rape and related physical and mental outcomes estimated that the national rate of rape related pregnancy is 5% among victims of childbearing age (12-45 years). Among the cases of rape-related pregnancy in their sam-
49 Merrill, LL; Newell, CE, Gold, SR., and Millen, JS. 1997. “Childhood Abuse and Sexual Revictimization in a Female Navy Recruit Sample,” Naval Health Research Center, Publication 97-5.
50 Warshaw, Robin. 1994. “I Never Called it Rape:” The Ms. Report on Recognizing, Fighting and Surviving Date & Acquaintance Rape. New York: Harper Perennial: 63.
51 Acierno, R.; Resnick, H.; Kilpatrick, D.; Saunders, B.; Best, C., 1999. “Risk Factors for Rape, Physical Assault, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women: Examination of Differential Multivariate Relationships.” Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13 (6):
52 Fergusson, D., Horwood, L.J., Lynskey, M., 1997. “Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Revictimization,” Child Abuse & Neglect, 21 (8): 796.
53 Banyard, V., Arnold, S., and Smith, J. “Childhood Sexual Abuse and Dating Experiences of Undergraduate Women,” Child Maltreatment, 5 (1) February 2000: 45.
54 Urquiza, A.J., and Goodlin-Jones, B.L. “Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Revictimization with Women of Color,” Violence and Victims. 9 (3) Fall 1994: 228.
55 Holmes, M., Resnick, H., Kilpatrick,
D. & Best, C. (1996). “Rape-Related Pregnancy: Estimates from a National Sample of Women” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Vol. 175, No. 2, p.320-324. Noll, J., Horowitz, L., et al. (2003).
56 Smuger, S. S., Spina, B.J. , Merz, J.F.(2002).“Informed Consent for Emergency Contraceptives:Variability in Hospital Care of Rape Victims”American Journal of Public Health.
Vol.90, No.9, 1372-1376.
ple, the majority had occurred among adolescents and resulted from assaults by a known, often related, perpetrator. Only 12% of the sexual assault victims in this study received immediate medical attention, 47% received no medical attention relating to the rape. 32% percent of the victims did not discover they were pregnant until they had already entered their 2nd trimester. 32% of the women opted to keep the infant, 50% underwent an abortion, 6% placed the infant up for adoption and 12% had a spontaneous abortion.55
The results of a telephone survey conducted with emer-gency department personnel in 58 large urban hospitals across the country (including 28 Catholic hospitals) about their policies on emergency contraception for rape victims indicated that:56
. Nearly half (12) of the Catholic hospitals reported
policy that prohibited staff from discussing emergency contraceptives with rape victims. Staff at 4 Catholic hospitals with restrictive policies would discuss con
traceptives despite the policies, 2 hospitals indicated
that the victim would be transferred to the gynecology department and contraceptives would be discussed there, 2 other hospitals indicated that the rape victim advocate was responsible for discussing contracep
tives with the victim and in the remaining 4 hospitals, the victim would only be told if she asked.
7 of the 12 Catholic hospitals prohibited their physi-cians from prescribing contraceptives. Four hospitals referred the victim to her own physician for a contra-ceptive prescription. One hospital indicated that physi-cians were allowed to prescribe contraceptives but only on their personal prescription pads, not ones bearing the hospital’s name. Seventeen of the Catholic hospitals indicated that their pharmacies were prohibited fromdispensing contraceptives.
None of the non-Catholic hospitals interviewed had restrictive policies.
A recent, similar survey conducted in 2002 by the Duvall Project of a sample of 152 hospitals in Pennsylvania indi-cated that 46% of the hospitals routinely offer and provide sexual assault victims with emergency contraception. 44% of the hospitals surveyed did provide information about emergency contraception and pills but only at the discre-tion of the physician on duty in the emergency room. 10% of the hospital emergency rooms surveyed did not provide
Research on Rape and Violence
any emergency contraception services to sexual assault victims.57
Aftermath . Emotional/Physical Injury
Participants in a longitudinal study who reported sexual abuse in childhood and early adolescence were almost four times as likely to have inflicted self-harm (in the form of suicide attempts or self mutilation) and reported signifi-cantly higher rates of physical revictimization than partici-pants with no history of sexual abuse.58
A study involving 228 drug-dependent women who were surveyed regarding their experience of abuse in childhood, researchers found that 42% of the women had experienced sexual abuse, 42% had experienced physical abuse and 50% had experienced emotional abuse. Sexual abuse sur-vivors were twice as likely to be anti-social as those who did not experience such abuse. Data showed an increased prevalence of severe personality disturbances among those women who experienced multiple types of childhood abuse.59
A review of evaluations of all female sexual assault victims
(892) presenting to an urban hospital emergency room over a 34 month period found:60
. General body injury was found in 52% of the patients but serious injury requiring emergency medical inter-vention was uncommon. Bruises and abrasions were by far the most common and present in nearly all of the patients who identified general body trauma. Twenty percent of those examined had genital or anal
injury. 15% had bruises or abrasions of the vulvar or perineal tissues. 7% had lacerations of those areas. Genital or anal injury was more than twice as likely in women older than 49 years of age.
Reviewing 766 sexual assault cases presenting to an urban sexual assault clinic, researchers found that adolescents had a greater frequency of anogenital injuries than older women. Common sites for injuries in adolescents were posterior, including the fossa navicularis, hymen, fourchette and labia minora. Adult victims presented typi-cally with a less consistent pattern of injuries with fewer hymenal injuries and greater injury to the perianal area and widespread erythema.61
In a retrospective study of 214 adolescent victims of sexual assault, 59% showed genital injury during examination within 72 hours of the assault. Only 46% of the victims
57 Clara Bell Duvall Reproductive Freedom Project. (2002) Study Update: Emergency Contraception Services for Rape Victims in Pennsylvania Hospitals. [available at http://www.aclupa.org/ duvall/ecup-date.html]
58 Noll, J., Horowitz, L., et al. (2003).
59 Haller, D & Miles, D. (2004). “PersonalityDisturbances in Drug-Dependent Women:Relationship to Childhood Abuse” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Vol. 30, No. 2. p269-286.
60 Sugar, N.F., Fine, D.N., & Eckert, T. (2004). “Physical Injury After Sexual Assault: Findings of a Large Case Series” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 190, No. 1, p.71-76.
61 Jones, J.S. et al. (2003).
showed injury when examined more than 72 hours after assault, which led researchers to suggest that the ability to heal from genital trauma is quicker with younger age.62
In a sample of 132 women examined within 10 days of their sexual assault, 65% of those without sexual experi-ence exhibited genital injury; 25% of those with prior sex-ual experience presented with similar genital trauma.63
A study of sexual assault victims examined after penile-vaginal penetration indicated that there was a correlation between the amount of time elapsed between the assault and the examination and the presence of genital trauma. In the first 24 hours post-assault, 89% of victims showed genital injury, after 72 hours following the assault, only 46% had identifiable genital injury.64
In a recent study, 73% of the women surveyed reported that they were “extremely fearful” or “concerned” about contracting HIV as the result of a rape. Women who were raped by a stranger were significantly more likely to express fear or concern about HIV exposure than women who were raped by partners or acquaintances. Over 80% of the women surveyed indicated that they wanted more HIV/AIDS related information during post-assault medical care.65
Rape, childhood sexual abuse, and domestic violence are among the most common causes of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in women. The chances that a woman will develop PTSD after being raped are between 50% and 95%. Sexual assault is also closely associated with depres-sion and anxiety disorders.66
In a study surveying more than 3,000 women at 32 col-leges and universities in the U.S., 30% of the women who identified in the study as rape victims contemplated suicide after the incident, 31% sought psychotherapy, 22% took self-defense courses, 82% said the experience had perma-nently changed them.67
In a 1996 study of a sample of over 6,000 adults, persons with a sexual assault history were significantly more likely to report one or more symptoms of eating disorders than persons without a sexual assault history. Circumstances of assault most strongly associated with eating disorder symptoms were assault during childhood, assault by parents, repeated assault, coercion by threat of love withdrawal, and completed sexual contact.68
Research on Rape and Violence
62 Adams, et al. (2000). “Signs of Genital Traumain Adolescent Rape Victims Examined Acutely.”Journal of Pediatric Adolescent Gynecology.
Vol. 13, No. 2. 88.
63 Biggs, et al. (1998). “Genital Injuries Following Sexual Assault of Women with and without Prior Sexual Intercourse Experience.” Canadian Medical Association Journal. Vol. 159, 33.
64 Slaughter, et al. (1997). “Patterns of Genital Injury in Female Sexual Assault Victims.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Vol. 176, 609-616.
65 Resnick,H.,Monnier,J.,Seals,B.,et.al.(2002). “Rape-related HIV Risk Concerns Among Recent Rape Victims” Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
Vol. 17, No.7, 746-759.
66 Population Information Program, 2000.
67 Warshaw,Robin,1994: 66.
Sexual abuse appears to contribute to teen pregnancy indirectly, by lowering the age at first intercourse and by increasing sexual risk-taking among young people. Studies in Barbados, New Zealand, Nicaragua, and the U.S. con-firm that, on average, sexual abuse victims start having voluntary sex significantly earlier than non-victims. Such studies also link sexual abuse to a variety of high-risk sex-ual behaviors in adolescents, including having sex with many partners, using drugs and abusing alcohol, not using contraception, and trading sex for money or drugs.69
Women were more likely to be injured in violent incidents committed by intimates than in incidents committed by strangers.70
In a 1994 Ms. Foundation Report on date and acquaintance rape, 41% of the raped women said they expect to be raped again.71
Compared to respondents without bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder, aggravated sexual assault history was sig-nificantly more prevalent in women with bulimia nervosa (26.8%), as was a lifetime history of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (36.9%). The survey results were summa-rized as follows, the significantly higher rates of both sexu-al and aggravated sexual assault among women with bulimia nervosa compared with women without such a diagnosis support the hypothesis that victimization may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of bulimia nervosa.72
Rape victims were at least somewhat or extremely con-cerned about the following:73
Her family knowing she has been sexually assaulted (71%)
People thinking that it was her fault or that she was responsible (69%)
People outside her family knowing she had been sexually assaulted (68%)
Her name being made public by the news media (50%)
Becoming pregnant (34%)
Contracting a sexually transmitted disease other than HIV/AIDS (19%)
Contracting HIV/AIDS (10%)
68 Laws, Ami and Golding, Jacqueline, 1996. “Sexual Assault History and Eating Disorder Symptoms Among White, Hispanic, and African-American Women and Men.” American Journal of Public Health 86(4): 579-582.
69 Population Information Program, 2000:15.
70 Bachman, Ronet, 1995. Violence against Women: Estimates from the Redesigned Survey. Bureau of Justice Statistics: National Crime Victimization Survey: 5.
71 Warshaw, Robin, 1994:64.
72 Dansky, B.S., Brewerton, T.D., Kilpatrick, D.G., & O ’Neil, P.M., 1997.“The National Women ’s Study: Relationship of Victimization and PTSD to Bulimia Nervosa.” The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 21:213-228.
73 Kilpatrick, et al., 1992:4.
Compared to non-victims of crime, rape victims were:74
5.3 times more likely to have used prescription drugs non-medically (14.7% vs. 2.8%)
3.4 times more likely to have used marijuana (52.2% vs. 15.5%)
Six times more likely to have used cocaine (15.5% vs. 2.6%)
10.1 times more likely to have used hard drugs other than cocaine (12.1% vs. 1.2%)
More than half of spousal rapes, rapes by ex-spouses, and stranger rapes resulted in victim injury, while about a quarter of parent-child rapes resulted in major injury. Injuries were most common among victims of age 30 or older and victims of rapists armed with a knife. Nearly 6 in 10 rapes involving a knife resulted in victim injury.75
Aftermath . Societal Costs/Impact
Results of women’s health longitudinal studies conducted in Australia found that intimate partner violence is respon-sible for an estimated 9% of the total disease burden for women under the age of 45. The greatest percentage of that burden (60%) is associated with mental health prob-lems; suicide, risky levels of smoking and alcohol con-sumption are also significant contributors. Intimate partner violence is the leading cause of death, disability and illness for women aged 15-44.76
47% of sexually assaulted boys reported engaging in delin-quent acts compared to 16.6% of boys who had not been sexually assaulted. Sexually assaulted girls were five times more likely to engage in delinquent acts than girls who had not been sexually assaulted.77
Researchers, using results from the Violence Against Michigan Women survey and other national survey data, projected the tangible and intangible losses (i.e. lost pro-ductivity, community service costs, property damage, etc.) associated with sexual violence. They estimated that the total cost of sexual violence (rape/sexual assault and sexu-al offense homicide) in 1996 in Michigan would have been nearly $6.7 billion dollars. For sexual assault, the Michigan per incident cost would have been $108,447 (nationally the per incident cost would have been $94,466). If the total
Research on Rape and Violence
75 Greenfeld, 1997:12.
76 Victorian Health Promotion Foundation. (2004). The Health Costs of Violence: Measuring the Burden of Disease Caused by Intimate Partner Violence in Australia Carlton South, Victoria: Australia: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation.
77 Kilpatrick, D.G., Saunders, B.E. et al. (2003).
sexual violence cost were distributed to Michigan residents via a “rape tax,” the cost to each citizen would have been nearly $700 per capita.78
A nationwide survey of incarcerated men and women indicated that:79
39% of the female inmates in state prisons, 23% of those in federal prison and 37% of those in local jails reported being raped at some point in their lives prior to their sentencing.
1 in 20 males and 1 in 4 females reported being sexually abused before the age of 18.
45% of the female inmates who had experienced either sexual or physical abuse prior to their incarcer ation had served at least one sentence for a violent
crime compared to 29% of the female inmates sur veyed who had no such history of physical or sexual abuse.
The cost of crime to victims is an estimated $450 billion a year when factors such as medical costs, lost earnings, pain, suffering, and lost quality of life are considered. Rape is the most costly to its victims, totaling $127 billion a year.80
In response to the open-ended question, “What do you fear most?” 81.9% of the participants (all women) in the Women’s Safety Project survey answered that they most feared being raped, physically assaulted, and/or murdered.81
Among women, victims of childhood sexual assault were twice as likely to be heavy consumers of alcohol and nearly three times as likely to become pregnant before the age of 18.82
Researchers in Rhode Island found that men who had experienced childhood sexual abuse were twice as likely to be HIV positive as men who did not, independent of a history of intravenous drug use or prostitution.83
In a study at an outpatient methadone maintenance clinic in the South Bronx of New York, early sexual abuse . especially incest . emerged as one of the most formative experiences in the lives of women addicted to such drugs as crack, cocaine, and heroin.84
One study in a large health maintenance organization (HMO) in Washington State, U.S., found that women who
78 Post, L.A., Mezey, N.J., Maxwell, C., & Wibert,
W.N. (2002).“The Rape Tax: Tangible and Intangible
Costs of Sexual Violence ” Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Vol.17, No.7, 773-782.
79 Wolf Harlow, C. 1999. Prior Abuse Reported by Inmates. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S.Department of Justice.
80 Miller, Ted, Cohen, Mark & Wiersema, Brian, (January 1996). Victims Costs & Consequences: A New Look, Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice Report, U.S.Department of Justice.
81 Randall, Melanie and Haskell, Lori, 1995. “Sexual Violence in Women ’s Lives: Findings from the Women ’s Safety Project, A Community-Based Survey.” Violence Against Women 1 ((1): 6-31.
82 Population Information Program, 2000:15.
86 Greenfeld, 1997:5.
88 Way, I., VanDuesen, K., Martin, G., Applegate, B., Jandle, D. (2004). Vicarious Trauma: A Comparison of Clinicians Who Treat Survivors of Sexual Abuse and Sexual Offenders” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 19, No. 1.1:49-71.
89 Baird, S., Jenkins, S.R. (2003). “Vicarious Traumatization, Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Agency Staff.” Violence and Victims. Vol. 18, No. 1, 71-86.
experienced any type of physical abuse in childhood whether physical, sexual, emotional, or neglect had signifi-cantly poorer health than their peers. The study found that women who suffered maltreatment in childhood had more sexual and reproductive health problems, poorer physical functioning, more risky behavior, and more physical symp-toms than nonabused women.85
Victims of rape/sexual assault accounted for about 4% of the victims of violence in 1993, but about 6% of the incidents in which some form of medical assistance was obtained.86
About 1 in 11 rape/sexual assault victims reported that they suffered some economic loss as a consequence of the crime.87
Aftermath . Vicarious Trauma/Secondary Victimization
A study of clinicians providing services to either sexual abuse survivors or sex abuse offenders indicated that clini-cians who had been working in the field for the shortest amount of time reported the highest levels of vicarious trauma.88
In a study of 101 sexual assault and domestic violence counselors, researchers noted that more educated coun-selors, and those with heavier case loads reported less vicarious trauma. Researchers also found that unpaid volunteers with lighter caseloads suffered higher rates of burnout than their paid counterparts. There appeared to be a correlation between unpaid volunteers not having access to the same level of organizational support systems that paid staff had access to, and that volunteers with lighter caseloads reported lower feelings of personal accomplish-ment than staff with higher caseloads, and that higher feel-ings of personal accomplishment helped other counselors ward off burnout.89
An exploratory study of the self care routines of experi-enced rape victim advocates identified five classes of activ-ities advocates used to regulate the amount of rape-related trauma they allowed in their lives and strengthened the advocate’s ability to accommodate rape-related trauma. The five classes of activities were (1) cognitive (i.e. self-talk, attitudes, internal “cheers”), (2) verbal (i.e. journal writing, talking out loud to self or to others, naming the problem), (3) social (i.e. spending time with friends, col-leagues), (4) physical (i.e. exercise, relaxation, driving), (5) spiritual (i.e. faith, value system, world views). Researchers
Research on Rape and Violence
also noted that the supportive nature of the organization had a tendency to either support (i.e. high staff retention) or impede (i.e. lack of opportunity to debrief, low compen-sation, non-supportive supervisors) the self-care strategies of the advocates.90
A sample of rape victim advocates was studied to deter-mine their fear and anger emotional reactions related to the course of their work. 49% of the incidences which the advocates indicated made them angry with particular individuals were related to the action of criminal justice personnel. 11% directed incidents of feeling angry at per-petrators. When they reviewed angry reactions to societal systems, advocates indicated that incidences involved the court system (39%), other community systems (18%), societal attitudes (15%), and the brutality of rape (14%).91
When advocates considered incidences that caused them to feel fear about individuals, the fear was directed at threats and perceived threats from perpetrators and their families (40%), personally identifying with characteristics of their clients (29%), concern for others, including their family members (16%). Rural advocates expressed the highest fear of encountering the perpetrator locally; urban and suburban advocates had fearful encounters with per-petrators and their families during the work hours. When asked about fear related to societal systems, advocates indicated the major issues were: being alone on the job (26%), criminal justice settings (visiting a jail, going to court etc) (20%); awareness of own risk (12%); heightened awareness of violence against women (10%).92
Many advocates interviewed for the study indicated that they considered these emotions to be necessary growing pains for advocates as they attempted to integrate the vio-lence they are exposed to into a meaningful understanding of their life and their world.93
A study of domestic violence counselors who worked with victims and perpetrators found that they were able to cope with the negative emotional aspects (secondary trauma) that their job had on their lives by employing several self-care strategies. Counselors indicated that they engaged in socializing and physical activity as well as participating in recreational activities to counteract the negative effects of the counseling sessions. Counselors also reported thinking about positive things (i.e. their client’s resilience) and channeling their anger and feelings of powerlessness into sociopolitical activism as helpful coping strategies.94
90 Wasco, S.M., Campbell, R. & Clark, M.(2002).“A Multiple Case Study of Rape Victim Advocates ’ Self-Care Routines: Influence of Organizational Context ” American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol.30, No.5, 731-760.
91 Wasco, S.M. & Campbell, R.(2002).“Emotional Reactions of Rape Victim Advocates: A Multiple Case Study of Anger and Fear ” Psychology of Women Quarterly. Vol.26, No.2, 120-130.
94 Iliffe, G., Steed, L.G. (2000).“Exploring TheCounselor ’s Experience Of Working WithPerpetrators And Survivors Of Domestic Violence”Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Vol.15, No.4, 393-412.
95 Campbell, R., Sefl, T., Barnes, H.E., Ahrens, C., Wasco, S., and Zaragoza-Diesfield,Y.,1999, “Community Services for Rape Survivors: Enhancing Psychological Well Being or Increasing Trauma.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 67, 847-858.
96 Baird, S., Jenkins, S., (2003). Vicarious Traumatization, Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Agency Staff. Violence and Victims. Vol. 18, No. 1, 71-86.
97 Lagan, P. A., Levin, D. J. (June 2002). Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994. Washington, D. C. : Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
98 Bureau of Justice Statistics (1999: revised in 2000). Women Offenders. Washington, D.C., Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
99 Violent Crime Information Center. (October, 2004). California Sex Offender Statistics Sheet. Sacramento, CA: Office of the Attorney General, California Department of Justice.
In a recent study of 102 survivors of non-stranger rape, those who received minimal or victim-blaming assistance from legal or medical system personnel had more traumat-ic stress symptoms. Survivors who received minimal or vic-tim-blaming assistance from local legal and medical serv-ice providers also were significantly helped by mental health counseling which served to lessen the effects of the secondary victimization.95
Younger counselors and counselors with more trauma counseling experience reported more exhaustion.96
Convicted rapists comprised 1.2% of all released prisoners in 1994 - 2.5 % of the released rapists were subsequently arrested for another rape.97
According to a report by the U.S. Department of Justice, women accounted for 1 in 50 offenders committing a vio-lent sex offense including rape and sexual assault. Women committed 2% of the total sexual assaults committed by violent offenders.98
As of October 4, 2004 there were 102,008 registered sex offenders in California. Of these offenders, 83,825 were clas-sified as “serious” and 1,847 as “high risk”. Another 16,336 were classified as “other” (convicted of pornography, misde-meanor sexual battery, spousal rape, incest or indecent sexu-al exposure.) As of this date, 1,802 high risk, 70,621 serious and 13,097 other sex offenders had photographs on file.99
In 2004, 66% of all California registered sex offenders were in the community, 17% were incarcerated, 13% were out of state and 3% were deported.100
In a recent study, 17.5% of a sample of sex offenders in a recent study committed another sexual offense. Incest offenders reoffended less often (8.4%) than rapists (17.1%) and extra-familial child molesters (19.5%). The recidivism rate for incest offenders was highest for perpetrators between the ages of 18-24 and for extrafamilial child molesters between the ages of 25-35.101
A study of criminal arrests and convictions and a follow-up research study 15 years later of 400 men who were 18 years old or older and were at least 5 years older than their victim found that:102
. A larger proportion of those who offended against
Research on Rape and Violence
children who were acquaintances (16.2%) were
charged with a new sex offense than those who
offended biological (4.8%) or stepchildren (5.1%).
. Of those charged with any other type of new criminal offense, the highest recidivism rate was for men who offended against extended family members (40%), acquaintances (36%), or strangers (45%). The lowest rate was for men who offended against their biological
82% of the suspected perpetrators of child sexual abuse in a study sample were at the time of the offense or had been at some time involved in a heterosexual relationship witha close relative of the child they victimized. In their study sample, researchers found that a child’s risk of being molested by his or her relative’s heterosexual partner was over 100 times greater than their being molested by some-one who identifies as being homosexual, lesbian or bisexu-al (0.7% of the cases).103
19% of the male inmates who had experienced either physical or sexual abuse prior to their incarceration were currently serving a sentence for sexual assault compared to 7% of males who had no prior history of such abuse.104
A study of 1,600 juvenile sexual assault offenders nationwide indicated that only about 33% of the juveniles perceived sex as a way to demonstrate love or caring for another person. 23.5% perceived sex as a way to feel power and control, 9.4% as a way to dissipate anger, and 8.4% as a way to punish.105
According the results of a statewide youth survey conduct-ed in Minnesota (n=71,594),106
. 4.8% of males and 1.3% of females self reported a
history of forcing someone into a sexual act. Males who had reported daily alcohol use, frequent use of illicit drugs, anabolic steroid use, a history of gang
membership or reported spending more than 40
hours per week “hanging out” were more likely to
report a history of sexual aggression. Females who
reported a history of steroid use, illicit drug use, high levels of suicidal risk behavior, gang membership and spending more than 40 hours per week “hanging out” were morelikely to report a history of sexual aggression.
. Males who reported themselves as being emotionally healthy, connected with friends and other people in
101 Hanson, R.K. (2002) “Recidivism and Age:Follow up Data from 4,673 Sex Offenders” Journalof Interpersonal Violence.
Vol. 17, No. 10, 1046-1062.
102 Greenberg, D., Bradford, J., Firestone P. andCurry, S. (2000). “Recidivism of Child Molesters: aStudy of Victim Relationships with the Perpetrator”.Child Abuse and Neglect.
Vol. 24, No. 11, 1485-1494.
103 Jenny, C., Roesler, T.A., & Poyer, K.L. (1994) Are Children at Risk For Sexual Abuse by Homosexuals?” Pediatrics Vol. 94, No. 1, 41-44.
104 Wolf Harlow, C., 1999: 3.
105 Ryan, G. , Miyoshi, T.J., Metzner, J.L., Krugman, R.D., Fryer, G.E., 1996. “Trends in a National Sample of Sexually Abusive Youths,” Journal of the American Academy of Adolescent Psychiatry. 35(1)17-25.
106 Borowsky, I.W., Hogan, M. and Ireland, M. 1997. “Adolescent Sexual Aggression: Risk and Protective Factors” Pediatrics 100(6) e7.
their community were less likely to report a history of sexual aggression. High academic performance was the factor reported most often for females least likely to report a history of sexual aggression.
At least 45% of rapists were under the influence of alcohol or drugs.107
The typical child sex offender molests an average of 117 children, most of whom do not report the offense.108
Only 2% of rapists are convicted and imprisoned.200
Based upon the reports of offenders in a survey of inmates of state correctional facilities, 66% of all prisoners convict-ed of rape or sexual assault committed their crime against a child.201
For the vast majority of child victimizers in state prisons, the victim was someone they knew before the crime. One in four had committed their crime against their own child.202
Federal statistical series obtaining data on arrested or con-victed persons . Uniform Crime Reports, National Judicial Reporting Program, and National Corrections Reporting Program . show a remarkable similarity in the character-istics of those categorized as rapists: 99 in 100 are male, 6 in 10 are white, and the average age is the early thirties.203
The National Violence Against Women Survey found that most violence perpetrated against adults is perpetrated by males: 93% of the women and 86% of the men who were raped and/or physically assaulted since the age of 18 were assaulted by a male. 10.8% of women victims and 23.3% of the male victims were assaulted by a female. (Total per-centages exceed 100 because some victims had multiple perpetrators.)204
In the 1994 Ms. Report on Recognizing, Fighting, and Surviving Date and Acquaintance Rape, college aged men were asked about their sexual behavior. Without using the word “rape”, men were asked if they had participated in specific acts that met the definition of rape, attempted rape, sexual coercion, and unwanted sexual contact, for example, “Have you ever engaged in sexual intercourse with a woman when she didn’t want to by threatening or using some degree of physical force?” The results showed that the 2,971 college men reported committing: 187 rapes, 157 attempted rapes, 327 episodes of sexual coercion, and 854 incidents of unwanted sexual contact.205
Research on Rape and Violence
107 U.S. Department of Justice, 1994. Violence Against Women. Rockville, Maryland: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
108 National Institute on Mental Health, 1998.
200 U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee: Conviction and Imprisonment Statistics, 1993.
201 Greenfeld, Lawrence A.,. 1996. Child Victimizers: Violent Offenders and Their Victims. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice: 24.
202 Greenfeld, 1996: 25.
203 Greenfeld, 1997: 2, 10.
In the same report, 84% of the men who committed rape said what they did was definitely not rape and 1 in 12 of the male students surveyed had committed acts that met the legal definitions of rape or attempted rape.206
In one Canadian meta-analysis of 61 previous studies of sex offender recidivism, child molesters averaged a 13% reconviction rate for sexual offenses, a 10% reconviction rate for new, non-sex offenses and a 37% reconviction rate for any type of offense over a five-year period. Rapists averaged a 19% reconviction rate for sexual offenses, a 22% reconviction rate for new, non-sexual offenses and a 46% reconviction rate for any type of offense over a five-year period.207
In 1994, less than 1% of all incarcerated rape and sexual assault offenders were female (fewer than 800 women).208 By 1997, however, 6,292 females had been arrested for forcible rape or other sex offenses, constituting approxi-mately 8% of all rape and sexual assault arrests for that year.209
About 4 in 10 rape/sexual assault incidents involved offenders who were age 30 or older, according to victims. About a quarter of the incidents involved offenders under age 21.210
On a given day there are approximately 234,000 offenders convicted of rape or sexual assault under care, custody, or control of corrections agencies; nearly 60% of these sex offenders are under conditional supervision in the commu-nity.211
In the aggregate, rape and sexual assault offenders account for just under 5% of the entire population under correc-tional sanction on a given day.212
In 1980, State prisons held 295,819 persons in their cus-tody, of which an estimated 20,500, or 6.9%, had been convicted of rape or sexual assault (includes convictions for statutory rape, forcible sodomy, lewd acts with children, and other offenses related to fondling, molestation, or indecent practices). By 1994, the State prison population had increased to 906,112, of which 88,000, or 9.7%, were sex offenders. While the prison population increased 206% over that period, the number of imprisoned sexual offenders grew 330%.213
In 1994, there were an estimated 88,100 sex offenders incarcerated in State prisons nationwide, accounting for
204 Tjaden and Thoennes, November 1998.
205 Warshaw, 1994: 83.
206 Warshaw, 1994: 21, 90.
207 Hanson, K. and Bussiere, M., “Predicting Relapse: A Meta-Analysis of Sexual Offender Recidivism Studies,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 66 (1998): 351.
208 Greenfeld, 1997: 21.
209 Federal Bureau of Investigations, Uniform Crime Report for the United States, 1997, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., Table 35:
210 Greenfeld, 1997: 4.
211 Greenfeld, 1997: 15.
212 Greenfeld, 1997: 17.
213 Ibid. 214 Greenfeld, 1997: 19. 215 Greenfeld, 1997: 25.
216 Gross, S., Jacoby, K., Matheson, D. et al (2004). Exonerations of the United States 1989-2003. Lansing, MI: University of Michigan School of Law.
about 9.7% of the inmate population. Sex offenders accounted for about 1 in 5 violent offenders housed in State prisons in 1994. About 6 out of 10 sex offenders had been convicted of sexual assault, and 4 in 10 had been convicted of forcible rape. The largest category of sex offenders was composed of those serving time for molesta-tion, fondling, or other related kinds of sexual assault.214
About 45% of State prisoners participating in the 1991 survey had committed the crime for which they were serv-ing a sentence while in the community on probation or parole. However, violent sex offenders in State prison were less likely than violent offenders overall to have been on probation or parole prior to prison admission.215
Researchers reviewed cases across the nation in which crimes were exonerated over a 20 year period. Their findings were:216
Of all the cases exonerated over that period of time 37% were rape cases. In 88% of rape cases in which the defendants were exonerated, the exoneration was based on DNA evidence.
90% of false convictions of rape, in stranger rape cases, were due to eyewitness misidentifications.
50% of exonerated rape defendants were black
In a recent survey of prosecutors in large districts (those serving populations of 500,000 or more), most have reported delays in getting DNA results from laboratories and 43% reported inconclusive DNA results.217
Reviewing the nature and outcomes of the cases of 204 incarcerated rapists, researchers found that of the 103 stranger, 36 acquaintance and 65 partner rapists, there were notable characteristics. Criminal history of the rapist was not predictive of sentence length. Instrumentality of force and the relationship to the victim were, however, sig-nificant predictors of sentence length. The study found that stranger rapists received significantly longer sentences than rapists who victimized someone they knew. In the same study, rapist and offense characteristics were more similar than dissimilar for the three rapist groups in terms of offense planning, use of threat or weapon, amount of
victim resistance or instrumentality of force.218
About 5 out of 10 rape defendants are released prior to trial, and 8 out of 10 convicted rape defendants had entered a guilty plea.219
The court set bail for an estimated 73% of rape defen-dants. The median bail or rape defendants was $23,500, about $50,000 less than the median bail set for murder defendants and $13,500 more than the median bail accord-ed robbery defendants. Among rape defendants securing release, the median bail was $10,000; among rape defen-dants failing to secure release, the median bail was $25,000.220
Based on a survey conducted in 6 states, 4,175 persons were arrested for rape in 1990. Of those, felony prosecu-tion was sought in 80% of the cases. 48% of those prosecuted resulted in conviction (40% felony, 6% misde-meanor, 2% other). Of the 32% that were not convicted, 29% of the cases were dismissed, 2% acquitted, and 1% other.221
Overall, in 1992, just over two-thirds of convicted rape defendants received a prison sentence. An additional 19% of convicted rape defendants were sentenced to a term in a local jail, and about 13% received a sentence to probation supervision in the community.222
For rape defendants sentenced to prison, the average term imposed was 164 months, or just under 14 years. The average jail term for an offender convicted of rape was 8 months, and the average probation term was just under 6 years. An estimated 2% of convicted rapists received a term of life imprisonment.223
About a third of rape defendants had one or more addi-tional felony convictions collateral to the conviction for rape. Collateral convictions were associated with an increased probability of receiving a prison sentence.224
Sentences of convicted rape defendants also carried addi-tional penalties, which included a fine (13% of convicted defendants), victim restitution (12%), required treatment (10%), community service (2%), and other penalties (10%).225
The method of conviction affected both the probability of receiving a prison sentence and the term of imprisonment for rape. Defendants convicted by a jury were substantially more likely to receive a prison term than those convicted in
217 DeFrances, C. J. December, 2001. National Survey of Prosecutors: State Court Prosecutors in Large Districts, 2001. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics. U.S. Department of Justice.
218 McCormack, J.S., Maric, A., Seto, M.C., & Barbaree, H.E. (1998). “Relationship to Victim Predicts Sentence Length in Sexual Assault Cases” Journal of Interpersonal Violence Vol. 13, No. 3, 413-420.
219 Greenfeld, 1997: 12.
220 Greenfeld, 1997: 12.
222 Greenfeld, 1997: 14.
223 Ibid.224 Ibid.225 Greenfeld, 1997: 15.226 Ibid.227 Federal Bureau of Investigations, 2003: 30.228 Federal Bureau of Investigations, 2003: 30.
bench trials or by plea, and the term was substantially longer. The average prison term for rape following a jury conviction was nearly 13 years longer than the average sentence received by those pleading guilty to rape.226
Arrests for forcible rape in 2002 were estimated at 28,288. During 2002, 16.7% of all forcible rape convictions were of persons under the age of 18 and 46.1% were of persons under the age of 25. Adults over the age of 18 made up 83.3% of arrests.227
Uniform Crime Report data tracks clearance rates for law enforcement for various crimes. Law enforcement agencies clear crimes by having at least one individual arrested, charged with the offense and the case turned over to court for prosecution. Cases can also be cleared by exceptional means outside of the control of law enforcement (e.g. death of the offender, victim’s refusal of cooperate with prosecu-tion after identifying the offender or extradition problems with another jurisdiction). Violent crimes (47%) continued to have higher clearance rates than property crimes (17%) in 2002. According to recent data, forcible rapes had a national clearance rate of 44.5% during 2002. The Northeast recorded the highest regional rape clearance rape of 50.7% of reported offenses. In 2002, the South cleared 48.4% of female rapes; the West 40.1% and the Midwest 39.2%.228
According to data from a FBI survey, of 250,000 sexual assault victimizations, only 40% had been investigated by law enforcement, of those cases only 9% had DNA evidence submitted to crime labs and only 6% of that evidence submitted had been processed by crime labs. In looking at DNA evidence collected following sexual assault convictions, only 48% of those perpetrators had DNA sam-ples collected and only 27% of the collected samples had been typed.229
In a study of 67 female veterans receiving outpatient treat-ment primarily for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder resulting from either physical or sexual assault trauma:230
87% of respondents said they were assaulted while on active military duty.
85% indicated that personal safety/self-defense training would be moderately or very helpful in
increasing their overall sense of safety.
91% of the participants indicated that training would increase their ability to protect themselves from attack -ers.
Many of the women indicated that taking a
safety/self-defense course would have a number of emotional and functional benefits including: increased self-confidence/self-esteem (41%), feel safer/feel
less fear (42%), learn self-defense/assertiveness skills (36%), and less agoraphobic behaviors (12%).
A study of 1,623 female college sexual assault survivors which analyzed assault characteristics and experiences that relate to women’s enrollment in postassault training found that:231
Participation in postassault self-defense/assertiveness training was greater for older respondents.
Postassault training was more likely when women felt their resistance either made the offender more aggressive or had no effect
Women who participated in postassault training were more than twice as likely to label their experience as rape and were more likely to disclose their assault
Postassault training participants experienced less current anxiety symptoms than non-participants
About 7 out of 10 victims of rape/sexual assault reported that they took some form of self-protective action during the crime. Among victims who took a self-protective approach, just over half felt that their actions helped the situation. About 1 in 5 victims felt that their actions either made the situation worse or simultaneously helped and worsened the situation.232
According to a study that used data collected from the National Crime Victimization Survey:233
. 78% of intimate assault victims used some form of self-protection as compared to stranger-perpetrated
assault victims (69%) (assault was defined as a physical assault . rape and attempted rape were excluded from this category, self-protective measures included both verbal and physical resistance).
229 National Institute of Justice. (June, 1998). “The Unrealized Potential of DNA Testing.” National Institute of Justice Journal. NCJ 170596.
230 David, WS., Cotton, AJ., Simpson, TL. et al., (2004) “Making a Case for Personal Safety: Perceptions of Vulnerability and Desire for Self-Defense Training Among Female Veterans”.
Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Vol. 19, No. 9: 991-1001.
231 Brecklin, LR., (2004) “Correlates of Postassault Self-Defense/Assertiveness Training Participation for Sexual Assault Survivors”. Psychology of Women Quarterly. Vol. 28, No. 2 p.147-158.
. Stranger perpetrated assault victims were more likely to believe that their self-protection actions actually helped the situation compared to victims of intimate
assault (76% compared to 56%). Consistent with this, those who were victims of intimate assaults were more likely to believe that self-protective measures employed made the situation worse.
A study of 150 women who reported a sexual assault to the Omaha Police Department found that:234
Forceful verbal resistance (screaming and/or yelling), physical resistance (wrestling/struggling, pushing, striking, biting, and/or using a weapon), and fleeing
(running, walking away, and/or fleeing in a car) were all associated with rape avoidance.
No resistance and non-forceful verbal resistance (pleading, crying and/or assertively refusing) were associated with being raped. This study did not take into account the type of weapon used in the assault.
In a study conducted with 851 women who had experi-enced rape or attempted rape, the use of self-protection during a rape was protective against completed rape. The study used data collected from the National Crime Survey between 1973 and 1982, which used a broad, victim-centered, definition of rape. The study excluded rapes involving multiple offenders and those that ended in the victim’s death.235
232 Greenfeld, 1997:5.
233 Bachman, Ronet and Carmody, Dianne Cyr. 1994. “Fighting Fire with Fire: the Effects of Victim Resistance in Intimate Versus Stranger Perpetrated Assaults Against Females.” Journal of Family Violence 9 (4): 317-331.
234 Zoucha-Jensen, Janice M. and Coyne, Ann. 1993. “The Effects of Rape Resistance Strategies on Rape.” American Journal of Public Health 83 (11): 1633-1634.
235 Marchbanks, Polly, Lui, Kung-Jong, and Mercy, James. 1990. “Risk of Injury from Resisting Rape.” American Journal of Epidemiology 132 (3): 540-549.
RAPE/SEXUAL ASSAULT VICTIMIZATION
77% of completed rapes are committed by someone who is known to the victim.237
An analysis of 2,563 felony sexual assaults reported in one
U.S. city between 1992 and 1995 revealed that 72% were committed by acquaintances.238
During 1998, about half the violent crime victims knew their offender and over 7 in 10 rape or sexual assault victims knew their attacker.239
Reviewing 766 sexual assault cases presenting to an urban sexual assault clinic, researchers found that adoles-cent victims (84%) were more likely than older women (50%) to have been sexually assaulted by an acquaintance or relative.240
Child Victimization (Including Incest)
When groups of women who were victimized by a brother or by their father were compared, the results showed that characteristics of the victimization (including use of force) were similar, as was the duration of the abuse over time. When the father was absent as a vital force in the family, the absence played a key role in the abuse by a brother in every instance.241
Estimates in previous research studies conducted since 1980 indicate that prevalence rates of male sexual abuse by siblings ranges from 6% to 33%.242
Analyzing National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data, researchers looked at babysitter perpetrated abuse of children as reported to law enforcement. “Babysitter” is defined as persons who temporarily care for children for pay, usually in the child’s or babysitter’s home. According to the data, babysitters are responsible for only 4.2% of all offences against children under the age of 6. Family members and strangers account for more abuse.
237 Bureau of Justice Statistics. Sex Offenses and Offenders, 1997. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.
238 Police Department Sex Crime Facts & Figures. 1999. San Diego Police Department.
239 Rennison, Calli M. 1999. Criminal Victimization, 1998: Changes 1997-1998 with Trends, 1993-1998. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
240 Jones, J.S., et al. (2003).
241 Rudd, J.M., Herzbereger, S. D. (1999). “Brother-Sister Incest, Father-Daughter Incest: a Comparison of Characteristics and Consequences”. Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 23, No. 9, 915-928.
242 Mathews, F. (2001) The Invisible Boy: Revisioning the Victimization of Male Children and Teens. Ottawa, Ontario: National Clearinghouse for Family Violence.
The data showed that:243
Among the offenses babysitters do commit, sex crimes outnumber physical assaults nearly two to one.
Children most at risk of physical assault are younger (ages 1-3) than those at risk of sexual abuse (ages 35).
Male babysitters commit more sex crimes (77%) and females more physical assaults (64%).
Juvenile babysitters committed more sex crimes (48%) than any other age classification.
39% of child patients who visited surveyed hospital’s emergency departments as a result of sexual violence were brought by their parents or guardians to evaluate whether the child had been a victim of a sexual assault or rape. In many cases of suspected abuse, there were physical signs or symptoms that could have resulted from sexual abuse. In other cases, the children had been alone with persons suspected of committing such acts.244
In a study of National Incident Based Reporting Systems data, juveniles (under the age of 18) represented the vast majority of the victims in reported cases of forcible fondling (84%), forcible sodomy (79%) and sexual assault with an object (75%). Juveniles represented less than half of the victims in reported forcible rapes (46%).245
Juvenile victims (77%) of sexual assault were more likely than adults (55%) to be victimized in their residence. Older juveniles (12-17 years of age) were more likely to be vic-timized in locations such as: roadways, fields/woods, schools, hotels/motels.246
Among female rape victims, 61% are under age 18.247
In 1994, 3,140,000 children were referred to CPS agencies in the U.S. for child abuse and neglect. 1,036,000 children were substantiated as victims of child maltreatment; of these, 113,960 were victims of sexual abuse.248
An estimated 984,000 children were victims of maltreat-ment nationwide. Forty-three states reported 440,994 vic-tims of neglect; 197,557 victims of physical abuse; 98,339 victims of sexual abuse; and 49,338 victims of physical abuse or neglect.249
Between 33% - 66% of known sexual assault victims are age 15 or younger.250
243 Finkelhor, D., Ormrad, R. (September, 2001) Crimes Against Children by Babysitters. Washington,
D. C., Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U. S. Department of Justice.
244 Rand, Michael R. 1997. Violence-Related
Injuries Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Special Report, U.S. Department of Justice: 5.
245 Snyder, H.N. 2000. Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident and Offender Characteristics. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
246 Snyder, 2000.
247 American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Adolescence. “Sexual Assault and the Adolescent”. Pediatrics, 1994;94(5): 761-765.
248 Wang, Ching-Tung and Daro, Deborah. 1998. Current Trends in Child Abuse Reporting and Fatalities: The Results of the 1997 Annual Fifty State Survey. Chicago, IL: National Center on Child Abuse Prevention Research. National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse
249 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Children’s Bureau, 1999. Child Maltreatment 1997: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse & Neglect Data System. Washington D.C.: Children’s Bureau, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.
250 Population Reports: Ending Violence Against Women, 2000.
Of the 22.3 million adolescents in the U.S. today, 1.8 mil-lion have been victims of serious sexual assault.251
Victims of sexual abuse in childhood appear more likely than other teens to become pregnant in adolescence. Childhood abuse has also been linked to unintended preg-nancies among adult women. The likelihood that a woman’s first pregnancy was unintended increased with both the number of different types of abuse she experi-enced and the frequency of abuse.252
A survey of high school adolescents showed that 17% of girls were physically abused and 12% were sexually abused, while 12% of boys were physically abused and 5% were sexually abused.253
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, child protective service agencies received about 2,806,000 referrals of possible maltreatment in 1998. 66% of those referrals investigated found that an estimated 903,000 children were victims of abuse and/or neglect. Of those 903,000 children, 12% (108,360 children) were vic-tims of sexual abuse.254
In 1995, 70% of forcible sex offenses and 95% of non-forcible sex offenses occurred against persons 17 and under. In 1996, the sexual assault victimization rate for youths under 18 was 2.7 times (or 170%) higher than for adults, or 3.2 per 1,000, compared to an adult rate of 1.2 per 1,000.255
Children who grow up in a family where there is domestic violence are eight (8) times more likely to be sexually molested within that family.256
Women who reported childhood rape were three times more likely to become pregnant before age 18.257
A survey of men revealed that:258
14% had been forced or coerced into sexual activity before they were 14 years old. The median age of their perpetrator was 27 years of age.
Nearly 45% of the sexual abuse involved some physi-cal force, 10% involved extreme physical force. Offenders were often male relatives or other men known to the victim.
Over 25% of these victims were anally penetrated by force.
251 Kilpatrick and Saunders, 1997. The Prevalence and Consequences of Child Victimization: Summary of a Research Study, Dean Kilpatrick, Ph.D. and Benjamin Saunder, Ph.D., Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
252 Population Reports: Ending Violence Against Women, 2000.
253 The Commonwealth Fund, 1999. Improving the Health of Adolescent Girls: Policy Report of the Commonwealth Fund Commission on women’s Health. New York, NY: The Commonwealth Fund.
254 Shalala, D., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. HHS Reports new child abuse and neglect statistics, April 2000.
255 1995 National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data analysis, CCRC, 1998.
256 U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, 1991.
257 Zierler, S., Feingold, L., Laufer, D., Velentgas, P., Kantrowitz-Gordon, I., Mayer, K. 1991. “Adult sur-vivors of childhood sexual abuse and subsequent risk of HIV infection.” American Journal of Public Health, 81, 572-575.
258 Ratner, P.A., Johnson, J.L., Shoveller, J.A., et al. (2003). “Non Consensual Sex Experienced by Men Who Have Sex with Other Men: Prevalence and Association with Mental Health.” Patient Education and Counseling. Vol. 49, 67-74.
259 Warshaw, 1994.
260 Tjaden and Thoennes, 1998.
261 Abbey et al., 1996.
262 Johnson, I., Sigler, R., 2000. “Forced Sexual Intercourse Among Intimates,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15(1).
263 Sugar, N.F., Fine, D.N., & Eckert, T. (2004). “Physical Injury After Sexual Assault: Findings of a Large Case Series” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 190, No. 1.: 71-76.
264 Petersilia, J.R. (2001). “Crime Victims withDevelopmental Disabilities: A Review Essay”Criminal Justice and Behavior Vol. 28, No. 6, 655-694.
266 Sorenson, D. (1997). “The Invisible Victims” IMPACT Vol. 10, No. 2, 4-7
267 Sobsey, D., 2000. “Faces of Violence Against Women with Developmental Disabilities.” In Impact: Feature Issue on Violence Against Women with Developmental or Other Disabilities, Abramson, W., Emanuel, E., Gaylord, V., & Hayden, M. (Eds.). (2000). 13 (3). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration.
In a study surveying more than 6,000 students at 32 col-leges and universities in the U.S., 84% knew their attacker, and 57% of the rapes happened on dates.259
67% of women who were raped and/or physically assault-ed since age 18 were assaulted by a current or former hus-band, cohabiting partner, or date compared to 18% of the men.260
A study of 1,000 female students indicated that 12% of unwanted sexual acts were perpetrated by casual dates and 43% by steady dating partners.261
13.3% of college women indicated that they had been forced to have sex in a dating situation.262
Persons with Disabilities and Sexual Assault
A review of evaluations of all female sexual assault victims
(892) presenting to an urban hospital emergency over a 34 month period found that 26% of the patients had a major psychiatric diagnosis before presentation. Ten percent were homeless.263
A review of previous studies showed a range of reporting rates for persons with developmental disabilities. One study estimated 40% of abuse of persons with mild and moderate mental retardation went unreported, 75% of cases in a Canadian study went unreported and 97% of cases in another study of persons with developmental dis-abilities went unreported. 95% of the perpetrators were known to the victim. Only 22% of alleged offenders were charged with a crime and of those charged, only 38% were convicted.264
When crimes are reported to authorities, they are often considered incidents of abuse and neglect, and not crimes, and as such are typically handled by group homes and institutions administratively which makes the prevalence difficult to quantify.265, 266
A study of 100 women and adolescent girls with a develop-mental disability who had been sexual assaulted revealed that:267
. 54% of the women had apparent physical injuries, 3%
became pregnant and 4% contracted sexually transmit-ted diseases. 95% reported some form of social, emo-tional or behavioral harm.
Only 35% of these cases were reported to authorities. Of those reported to authorities 32.8% resulted in for-mal charges. Of those resulting in formal charges, only 11% resulted in a conviction.
Only 20% of the women reported receiving counseling that met their needs. 26% were unable to access any services. 36% of those responding were not provided with necessary service accommodations and 18% reported inadequate service accommodations.
Research indicates that in addition to the emotional, physi-cal and sexual abuse all women may experience, women with a disability were also likely to be abused by caregivers withholding needed orthodic equipment (wheelchairs, walkers etc.), medications, transportation or essential assistance with personal tasks.268
Among developmentally disabled adults, as many as 83% of the females and 32% of the males are the victims of sexual assault.269
Women with disabilities are raped and abused at a rate at least twice that of the general population of women.270
97% to 99% of abusers are known and trusted by the vic-tim who has developmental disabilities.271
According to a study involving the sexual abuse of people with disabilities:272
The victims knew the perpetrator in 92% of the cases. Most included family members, other people with dis-abilities and health care providers.
82% of people with disabilities who have been sexually victimized are female.
79.6% of people with disabilities were sexually assaulted on more than one occasion. 50% of those experienced more than 10 victimizations.
15,000 to 19,000 people with developmental disabilities are raped each year in North America (Canada and the United States).273
Women with disabilities are as likely to be abused as women without disabilities.Out of a survey sample of 860
268 Nosek, MA; Howland, CA; Rintala, DH; Young, ME; and Chanpong, GF. 1997. National Study for Women with Physical Disabilities. Final Report. Houston, TX: Center for Research on Women with Disabilities.
269 Stimson, L. and Best, M.C., Courage Above All: Sexual Assault against Women with Disabilities. Toronto, Disabled Women’s Network Canada, 1991.
270 Sobsey, D., 1994. Violence and Abuse in the Lives of People with Disabilities: The End of Silent Acceptance, Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co., Inc.
271 Balderian, N. (1991). “Sexual abuse of people with developmental disabilities.” Sexuality and Disability, 9 (4), 323-335.
272 Sobsey, D. & Doe, T. (1991). “Patterns of sexual abuse and assault.” Sexuality and Disability, 9 (3), 243-259
274 Young ME., Nosek MA, Holand CA, Chanpong G, Rintala, DH. “Prevalence of abuse of women with physical disabilities.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1997; 78 (Suppl): S34S38.
275 Beail N. and Warden, S., 1995; “Sexual Abuse of Adults with Learning Disabilities.” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 39(5), 382-387.
276 Milberger, S., LeRoy, B., Martin, A. et al. (2002). Michigan Study on Women with Physical Disabilities: Final Report. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University. National Institute of Justice Grant #2000-WT-VX-0018. NCJ 193796
278 Sullivan, P.M., & Knutson, J.F. (1998). “Maltreatment and Behavioral Characteristics of Youth Who are Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing” Sexuality and Disability Vol. 16, No. 4.: 295-319.
279 Sullivan, P.M., Vernon, M., & Scanlan, J., (1987). “Sexual Abuse of Deaf Youth” American Annals of the Deaf. Vol. 132: 256-262.
women (439 with physical disabilities and 421 without physical disabilities), 62% of both groups experienced some type of abuse. Half of those abused experienced physical or sexual abuse. 274
95% of sexual violence episodes against people with dis-abilities involve sexual contact (e.g. intercourse, fondling or masturbation).275
In a recent sample of 177 women with disabilities in Michigan, 56% of the women reported a history of abuse. Most of the women (89%) reported that their abuse occurred in the past, with 87% reporting physical abuse, 66% reporting sexual abuse, 35% reporting refusal of help with a personal need, and 19% reporting they were prevented from using a device for assistance. 74% of the women reported chronic abuse. Over half of the women reported that their abusers were using drugs and/or alco-hol at the time of the abuse. Only 33% of the women surveyed indicated they had sought help for their abuse.276
To assess the capacity of support services to assist women with disabilities, a telephone survey was conduct-ed with all of the Michigan sexual assault and domestic violence programs (n=55). The survey of the service organizations found that most of the shelters were acces-sible to individuals in wheelchairs or could refer women to a more accessible location; more than half had inter-preters available. Generally, they could accommodate any woman who could care for herself.277
Sexual Violence Against Persons who are Deaf
Children who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (66.7%), speech and language impaired (59.1%) or who have a language learning disability were significantly more likely to be sexually abused than children without an identifiable disability.278
A study of 482 children with documented maltreatment evaluated at the Center for Abused Handicapped Children at Boys Town Research Hospital in Omaha, Nebraska, reveals that more than half (53.4%) of the deaf children report being sexually abused.279
In a study of 150 interviewed deaf youth at a residential
school, 75 children reported being sexually abused, 19 reported being victims of incest in their homes, and 3 reported both physical and sexual abuse.280
Drug Facilitated Rape
A survey of 176 college women indicated that:281
15% reported having anal or vaginal intercourse when they did not want to because they were unable to consent as a result of incapacitation by drugs or alcohol.
37% reported at least one drug or alcohol related sex assault experience.
25% reported at least one non-drug or alcohol related sex assault experience. 39% reported no sex assault experience.
A recent study to examine the prevalence of club drug use showed that in a review of emergency room records from 1994-2000, the most prevalent club drugs mentioned were the following:282
MDMA (Ecstasy) 5,542
In a study of perpetrators successfully prosecuted for drug facilitated sexual assault, the following profile was suggested:283
Majority of perpetrators lived alone
Less than one-third had been in a committed relation-ship before
Over 80% of the perpetrators were over the age of 30
When a co-conspirator was involved, there were usual-ly a higher number of victims.
Despite public attention on other drugs used to facilitate sexual assault, a random analysis of urine samples collect-ed for evidence in sexual assault cases indicated that the two most frequently detected substances were alcohol and marijuana.284
281 Marx, B. P., Nichols-Anderson, C., Messman-Moore, T., Miranda, R., and Porter, C. (2000). “Alcohol Consumption Outcomes Expectations and Victimization Status Among Female College Students, Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 30, No. 5, 1056-1070.
282 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2002) Emergency Department Trends from the Drug Warning Network Final Estimates(1994-2001): Rockville, MD.
283 Welner, M. (2001). “The Perpetrators and their Modus Operandi” in Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: A Forensic Handbook, LeBeau, M. & Mozayani, A. eds. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
284 Slaughter, L., 2000. “Involvement of Drugs in Sexual Assault.” Journal of Reproductive Medicine,45(5) 425-430.
A Department of Justice working group assembled by the Attorney General to assess the problems posed by drugs used to facilitate rape indicated in their final report that it: “could draw no conclusions beyond a clear recognition that the incidence of this offense is extraordinarily difficult to measure, that existing indicators are incapable of moni-toring the problem, and that the true magnitude of the problem cannot be known with certainty from the scientific methods that have been used to date.”285
Although the media has labeled drugs such as Rohypnol and GHB as the date-rape drugs of the present, these are only two of the many drugs used to incapacitate an unknowing victim. Of the 22 substances used in drug facil-itated rapes, ethanol (alcohol) is the most common finding in investigations of drug-facilitated sexual assault cases.286
Although no other one drug is as prevalent as ethanol, benzodiazepines are present in a significant number of drug facilitated sexual assault cases.287
School based surveys seem to suggest that Rohypnol and GHB are consumed voluntarily, perhaps increasingly so, because these drugs are cheap, easy to share, and easy to hide. Use appears to be concentrated among populations that also are at the highest risk of sexual assault, including middle school, high school, and college-age students.288
Since 1993, over 9,600 encounters with GHB have been documented by information gathered from law enforce-ment, poison control centers and hospitals in 46 states. Of these, there are approximately 8,200 overdose cases attrib-uted to GHB abuse reported from 1996-1998.289
Since 1990, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has identified 68 GHB related deaths. 10% of the decedents were 14-19 years old, 58% were 20-29 years old and 21% were 30-39 years old. 60% of the decedents were male and 93% were white.290
Since 1996, the DEA has received reports that substantiate the use of GHB to physically incapacitate women in order to commit sexual assault. These cases were verified by forensic evidence, including GHB in urine, drug samples at the scene, videotapes of the assaults, or admissions from the suspect. The DEA is aware of at least 18 sexual assault cases involving 43 victims of GHB in California, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Texas, Utah, and Wisconsin. In the cases in Florida, Texas, Maryland, and Wisconsin, the GHB was
285 Fitzgerald, N. and Riley, J.K. , April 2000, “Drug Facilitated Rape: Looking for the Missing Pieces” Journal National Institute of Justice.
286 LeBeau, M., Androllo, W., Hearn, W.L., Baselt, R., Cone, E., Finkle, B., Fraser, D., Jenkins, A., Mayer, J., Negrusz, A., Poklis, A, Walls, H.C., Raymon, L., Robertson, M., and Saady, J. “Recommendations for toxicological investigations of drug facilitated sexual assaults,” Journal of Forensic Sciences., 1999, 44: 227-230.
287 LeBeau et al., 1999.
289 World Health Organization Questionnaire for Review of Dependence-Producing Psychoactive Substances by the Thirty-Second Expert Committee on Drug Dependence, U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, May 18, 2000.
detected in the urine of sexual assault victims.291
A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of drug use in sexual assault cases in which substances are sus-pected of being involved. Law enforcement agencies, emer-gency rooms, and rape crisis centers across the U.S. were offered the opportunity to submit urine samples collected from victims of alleged sexual assault, where drug use was suspected, for analysis of alcohol and drugs, which may be associated with sexual assault. Over a 26-month period, 1179 samples were collected and analyzed from 49 states, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia. Of those samples, 451 were positive for ethanol, 218 for cannabinoids, 97 for benzoylecgonine, 97 for benzodiazepines, 51 for ampheta-mines, 48 for GHB, 25 for opiates, 17 for propoxyphene, and 12 for barbiturates. In particular, California showed the highest percentage of positive samples for ampheta-mines and GHB.292
The Roofie Foundation of the UK, which operates a 24-hour help-line, released its victim statistics report in April 2000. According to the Roofie Foundation they received 757 reports of drug-facilitated rape in 1999. These figures include incidents of drug rape reported to the Northern Irish branch of the Roofie Foundation. In the first quarter of 2000, they received 149 reports of drug-facilitated rape.293
In a retrospective study of cases presenting to a hospital based sexual assault services center, data indicated that over a seven year period the median number of suspected drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA) was 12% of the total number of cases. In 1999, however, the percentage of cases increased to nearly 23% of all sexual assault cases. 97% of all victims of DFSA cases were female. A compari-son between the drug facilitated sexual assault cases and non-drug facilitated sexual assault cases showed that the median time from assault to examination for DFSA was 18 hours (compared to 10 hours for non DFSA cases). DFSA victims had police involvement in their cases 48% of the time (compared to 66% of non-DFSA victims).
DFSA victims also presented with a lower occurrence of genital and extra-genital injury compared to non DFSA vic-tims.294
In a review of National Crime Victimization study respons-es, researchers noted that offender alcohol use was a
2922 ElSohly, M.A. and Salamone, S.J. “Prevalence of Drugs Used in Cases of Alleged Sexual Assault,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 23, May/June, 1999.
293 The Roofie Foundation: Victim Statistics_April
294 McGregor, M.J.; Lipowska, M.; Shah, S. et al.(2003). “An Exploratory Analysis of Suspected Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Seen in a HospitalEmergency Department.” Women & Health.
Vol. 37, No. 3. 71-80.
295 Brecklin, L.R., Ullman, S.E. (2002). “The Roles of Victim and Offender Alcohol Use in Sexual Assaults: Results from the National Violence Against Women Survey.” Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Vol. 63, No. 1, 57-63.
296 Teaster, P.B., and Roberto, K.A. (2003). “Sexual Abuse of Older Women Living in Nursing Homes.” Journal of Gerontological Social Work, Vol. 40, No. 4, p.105-137.
297 Jasinski, JL and Dietz, TL (2003) “Domestic Violence & Stalking Among Older Adults: An Assessment of Risk Markers” Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect Vol. 15, No. 1, 3-18.
298 Capezuti, E. A., Swedlow, D.S., (2000). “Sexual Abuse in Nursing Homes” Elder Advisor: The Journal of Elder Law and Post-Retirement Planning. Vol. 2, No. , 51-61.
299 Burgess, A. W., Dowdell, E.B., Prentky, R. A. (2000). “Sexual Abuse of Nursing Home Residents” Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. Vol. 38, No.8, 10-18.
strong predictor of rape completion. Data suggested in cases in which both offenders and victims both had used alcohol were unrelated to rape completion, however when only the offender used alcohol there was a significant cor-relation with completed rapes.295
Elder Abuse: Sexual Violence
Aggregate data from Adult Protective Services case files of sexually abused older women between the ages of 70 and 89 living in nursing homes in a city in Kentucky over a five year period yielded 50 substantiated cases. The most common types of sexual abuse involved instances of sexualized kiss-ing and fondling and unwelcomed sexual interest in the woman’s body. All alleged perpetrators were male, typically 70 years or older and residents of the nursing home. In only 3 cases was the offender prosecuted and in only one of these cases was the offender convicted.296
When researchers analyzed sub-sample data from National Violence Against Women survey respondents over the age of 55, they found that older adults experienced intimate partner violence (1.3% vs. 1.6%) and stalking (2.3% vs. 2.7%) at relatively similar rates as the total sam-ple of all respondents (age 18 years and older).297
A study of perpetrators of elder abuse identified three types of offenders: gerophiles who often seek jobs in nurs-ing homes, sexually aggressive elderly men who them-selves reside in nursing homes, or strangers or known per-sons who rape non-resident elderly women.298
Analysis of data from 20 nursing home residents (19 women, 2 men) who were raped indicated the following:299
Someone other than the victim reported the rape to an official.
Unless the rape was witnessed, the report was delayed.
Clues, such as a sexually transmitted disease, assisted in the disclosure of a rape.
Victim typically had an impairment which affected their ability to communicate.
Offenders were either nursing home employees or other residents.
Physical or forensic evidence was missing if the exami-nations were delayed.
In an analysis of National Crime Victim Survey data, researchers found that for crime victims over the age of
Elderly women were more likely to be assaulted in the residence than in any other location.
Elder female assault victims were more likely than their younger counterparts to sustain injuries that required medical attention.
For all assaults against the elderly, 81% were commit-ted by lone offenders and 32% were committed by strangers. In 21% of all assault victimizations, the vic-tim received an injury and 53% of those injured required medical attention.
Of the violent assaults committed by lone offenders, the relationship between victim and offender were as follows: 6% intimates, 6% other family members, 66% friends or acquaintances, and 21% strangers.
Persons age 50 or older made up 30% of the general population age 12 or older and 3% of rape/sexual assault victims.301
In California, there was a 3.1% increase in reported forcible rapes committed against senior citizens from a total of 96 in 1997 to 99 in 1998.302
Of the 293,000 nationwide reports of elder abuse in 1996, there were 8,790 reported incidents of sexual assault.303
While the forcible rape rate per 100,000 decreased for the entire population, 5.5% from 1997 to 1998, the forcible rape rate for the senior citizen population remained the same for the same time period, 2.1 per 100,000. Overall, forcible rapes for the senior citizen population declined
57.1 percent from 1988 to 1998, but there was a 13.6 per-cent increase from 1995 to 1996.304
Compared with violent crime victims in other age groups, elderly victims of nonlethal violence were less likely to use self-protective measures, such as arguing with the offend-er, running away, calling for help, or attacking the offender.305
In nearly 1 in 7 sexual assault murders (murder in which rape or sexual assault has been identified by investigators as the principal circumstance underlying the murder) vic
300 Bachmant, R., Dillaway, H., Lachs, M., 1998. “Violence Against the Elderly.” Research on Aging, 20(2), 183+.
301 Rennison, Callie Marie. Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1997. Special Report: Age Patterns of Victims of Serious Violent Crime. Washington D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
302 Office of the Attorney General, January 2000. Report on Violent Crimes Committed Against Senior Citizens in California, 1998. Criminal Justice Statistics Center Report Series. Vol. 1, no. 4.
303 Toshio and Kuzmeskus, Lisa, 1996. The National Elder Abuse Incident Study: Final Report, September 1998, National Center On Elder Abuse Washington, D.C.
304 Office of the Attorney General, January 2000.
305 Klaus, P., 2000. Crimes Against Persons 65 or Older, 1992-97; Washington D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice: 2.
306 Greenfeld, 1997: 29.
307 Safarik, Mark E.; Jarvis, John P.; Nussbaum, Kathleen E. (2002) “Sexual Homicide of Elderly Females: Linking Offender Charcateristics to Victim and Crime Scene Attributes.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Vol. 17, No. 5, 500-525
308 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook on Criminal Justice Statistics, 1994.
309 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook on Criminal Justice Statistics, 1994.
310 Greenfeld, 1997.
311 Gidycz, C. & Koss, M., 1990. A comparison of group and individual sexual assault victims. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 14.
312 Warshaw, 1994: 101.
tims were 60 or older compared to 1 in 14 murder victims, the second highest incidence of any age group.306
In an analysis of the data available from the Supplement-ary Homicide Reports (SHR) as collected by the FBI Uniform Crime Reports from 1976 to 1999 on the homicide of elderly female victims, 92% of the cases also involved the rape of the victim, with 8% involving some other sexu-al offense. 56% of the offenders lived within six blocks of the victim, with nearly 30% living on the same block.307
Gang Rape (Multiple Assailants)
Of multiple assailants, 44.5% were white, 26.5% were mixed races, and 15.6% were black. Also of multiple assailants, the most common age was 12-20 (44.7%), followed by 21-29 (25.7%).308
In 1994, 10.6% of rapes and sexual assaults were commit-ted by multiple assailants.309
In 76% of sexual assaults committed by multiple assailants, the assailants were strangers to the victim.310
In a study comparing victims of sexual assault perpetrated by one assailant to those victimized by two or more assailants, research indicated that victims of group rape were significantly more likely to seek crisis counseling services and report the incident to authorities. Group rape victims, in this study, were nearly twice as likely to have considered suicide and to have sought therapy. The find-ings of this study also supported the belief that the amount of aggression during the attack tends to increase as each perpetrator assaults the victim.311
16% of the male students surveyed by the Ms. Foundation who had committed rape and 10% of those who attempted a rape took part in episodes involving more than one attacker.312
Sexual Violence Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and
Transgendered (LGBT) Individuals
The National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs pro-duced its 2004 report on the trends regarding anti-LGBT violence reported to their network of over 20 antiviolence organizations nationwide. These organizations monitor and respond to incidents of bias, domestic, HIV-related and other forms of violence affecting the LGBT community in their areas. Their findings indicated the following trend from 2002 to 2003:313
The total number of bias-related incidents reported an increase of 8% between 2002 and 2003.
Notable changes in reported incidences around the coun-try during this period include: Houston (+150%), Colorado (+62%), Cleveland, OH -5%), Los Angeles (+6%), Columbus, OH (-4%) and San Francisco (-11%).
The number of sexual assault/rape reports decreased from 37% to 20% from the previous year.
There was an overall decline in the number of cases reported to law enforcement (-2%) and in the number of cases refused by law enforcement (-12%) in 2003.
A national representative sample of 760 kids (aged 12-17) was asked about their experience with and opinions about anti-gay teasing and bullying in their schools and neigh-borhoods. Results showed:314
More than three-quarters of teens (78%) reported that kids who are gay or thought to be gay are teased or bullied in their schools and communities.
93% hear other kids at school or in their neighborhood use anti-gay epithets at least “once in a while”, 51% reported hearing them every day.
4% reported participating in the teasing and bullying because they “think it’s funny,” “didn’t think much about it,” or “were only playing around.”
78% reacted unfavorably towards expressions of anti-gay bias, 5% said they try to stick up for the kids who are targets. Only 3% said they found the teasing and bullying funny, 11% said they ignored it or didn’t care.
Citing previous Hate Crime research, it is estimated that only 13-14% of anti-gay violence is reported to the police each year in a longitudinal study. Victims often believed that discussion of their sexuality would subject them to further victimization and were reluctant to disclose it. Earlier studies indicated that between 16-30% of LGBT vic-tims had been victimized by the police.315
Rates of sexual abuse and assault of gay men may be higher than those found in studies of men generally (i.e. without reference to sexual orientation). One study indicat
313 National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (2004). Anti-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Violence in 2003: A Report of the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. New York: New York City Gay and Lesbian Anti-Violence Project.
314 National Mental Health Association. (2002). What Does Gay Mean Teen Survey Alexandria, VA: National Mental Health Association.
315 Dean, L., Meyer, I.H., et al. “Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Health: Finding and Concerns. (2000). Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. Vol. 4, No. 3, 101-151.
316 Dean et al., (2000).
318 National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (2003). Anti-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Violence in 2001: A Report of the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. New York: New York City Gay and Lesbian Anti-Violence Project.
ed that 37% of the men reported having a sexual encounter with an older or stronger partner (usually a man) before the age of 17. 51% of those encounters involved the use of force and more than 93% met the defi-nition of sexual abuse or assault.316
More than half of the respondents to a lesbian health sur-vey had experienced a verbal hate crime. One in 20 report-ed having been physically assaulted. Other research showed three-fourths of the lesbians surveyed experienced at least one verbal hate crime and 1 in 10 reported a histo-ry of hate-motivated physical assault.317
The National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs pro-duced its 2003 report on the trends regarding anti-LGBT violence reported to their network of 26 antiviolence organizations nationwide. These organizations monitor and respond to incidents of bias, domestic, HIV-related and other forms of violence affecting the LGBT community in their areas. Their findings indicated the following trends-from 2001 to 2002:318
The total number of bias-related incidents reported a slight increase of 1% between 2000 and 2001. This contrasts with a decrease in reported incidences from 2000 to 2001.
Most reporting locations showed a small to significant increase in reported incidences. The largest increases reported around the country during this period came from organizations in: Houston (+150%), Colorado (+62%), Cleveland, OH (+44%), Los Angeles (+20%), Columbus, OH (+17%) and San Francisco (+13%).
The number of sexual assault/rape reports increased 37% from the previous year.
Almost 20% of the reports were refused by law enforcement in 2002.
According to a study conducted in Massachusetts, young lesbians and bisexual girls experienced more sexual harassment than heterosexual girls. 72% of lesbian and bisexual girls reported that they were “called sexually offensive names” by their peers, compared with 63% of heterosexual girls. Lesbians and bisexual girls were signifi-cantly more likely than heterosexual girls to be “touched, brushed up against, or cornered in a sexual way (63% as compared to 52% of heterosexual girls) and to be grabbed or have their clothing pulled in a sexual way (50% com-pared to 44%). 23% of young lesbian and bisexual girls reported that their peers had “attempted to hurt them in a sexual way (attempted rape or rape),” while 6% of the het-erosexual girls surveyed had experienced sexual violence of this nature.”319
In a sample of 412 university students, 16.9% of the sub-jects reported that they were lesbian, gay, or bisexual; the remainder identified themselves as heterosexual. Of the lesbian, gay, and bisexual subjects 42.4% (30.6% female and 11.8% male) and 21.4% of the heterosexuals (17.8% female and 3.6% male) indicated they had been forced to have sex against their will.320
A 1991 study of university students reported that of their sample of gay/bisexual students (including both gay men and lesbians) approximately 18% had been victims of rape, approximately 12% had been victims of attempted rape, and approximately 37% had been victims of sexual coercion.321
There were 2,552 reported anti-gay incidents in 1998, of which 88 were sexual assault/rapes.322
The increase in rapes and sexual assaults rose 13% nationally in 1995-1996 against lesbians and gays, approximately twice the 6% rate for all violent crimes.323
According to the First National Survey of Transgender Violence, 13.7% of 402 persons reported being a victim of rape or attempted rape.324
International Violence Against Women
According to reports published recently concerning sexual violence in Africa, United Nations estimates project that 250,000 women were sexually assaulted or subjected to some form of gender based violence during the genocide crisis in Rwanda.325 In May, an Amnesty International dele-gation visiting three border camps for Sudanese refugees from Darfur documented 500 cases of rape and projected that the actual number of cases to be considerably higher due to the Sudanese women’s reluctance to openly discuss sexual violence.326
Summarizing data from previous international studies on the prevalence of rape, (noting that the research does not differentiate between stranger/non stranger rape), researchers found the following rape rates: 1.4 % in La
319 Susan Fineran, “Sexual Minority Students and Peer Sexual Harassment in High School,” Journal of School Social Work, vol.11: 2001.
320 Duncan, David F., 1990. “Prevalence of Sexual Assault Victimization Among Heterosexual and Gay/Lesbian University Students.” Psychological Reports 66: 65-66.
321 Baier, John L., Rosenzweig, Marianne G., and Whipple, Edward G. 1991. “Patterns of Sexual Behavior, Coercion, and Victimization of University Students.” Journal of College Student Development
322 New York City Gay and Lesbian Anti-Violence Project. 1999. Anti-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Violence in 1998. New York, NY: National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs.
323 Anti Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Violence Report. New York City Gay & Lesbian Anti-Violence Project, 1996.
324 “GenderPAC, Gender, Affectional, and Racial Equality,” April, 1997. First Annual Survey of Transgender Violence.
325 Human Rights Watch. (2004) Struggling to Survive: Barriers to Justice for Rape Victims in Rwanda New York: Humans Rights Watch.
326 Amnesty International. (2004) Darfur: Rape as a Weapon of War . Sexual Violence and its Consequences New York: Amnesty International.
327 World Health Organization. (2002)
World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva,Switzerland: World Health Organization. 328 Ibid.329 Greenfeld, 1997.330 World Health Organization., 2002331 Population Information Program, 2000.332 Population Information Program, 2000: 5.333 Population Information Program, 2000: 25.
Paz, Bolivia, Gaborone, Botswana - .8%, Manila, Philippines - .3%. Beijing, China . 1.6%, Tirana, Albania 6.0%, Buenos Aires, Argentina . 5.8%, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil . 8.0%, Bogota, Colombia . 5.0%.327
Forced sexual initiation and coercion studies indicate that the first sexual experience for some girls is often forced and unwanted. 32% of the respondents to a Cape Town, South Africa survey reported forced sexual initiation. A multi-Caribbean nation study also found that nearly half of the female respondents and one-third of the adolescent male respondents indicated that they had their first sexual experience forced on them. A Peruvian study found that 40% of the females surveyed responded that they had been forced into their first sexual experience.328
Comparison of gang rape prevalence indicates that while United States multiple-perpetrator rape prevalence is 1 in 10 329, surveillance studies in South Africa suggests that their national rate is closer to 1 in 3.330
Around the world at least one woman in every three has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime. Most often the abuser is a member of her own family. Increasingly, gender-based violence is recognized as a major public health concern and a violation of human rights.331
In nearly 50 population-based surveys from around the world, 10% to over 50% of women report being hit or oth-erwise physically harmed by an intimate male partner at some point in their lives.332
Fear of rape has contributed to under-nutrition among Ethiopian refugee families living in Sudanese border camps. Ethiopian women refugees surveyed said they cooked fewer meals for their children because they feared being raped while out collecting firewood. In fact, many had been raped during the 2 to 3 hour forays to collect fuel.333
Women in Turkey are often subjected to “virginity exami-nations” even though the Turkish Medical Association has deemed them as a form of gender-based violence. In a 1998 survey of 118 physicians the findings are as follows: overall, survey respondents reported conducting 5,901 vir-ginity examinations in the previous 12 months; 4,045 were conducted because of alleged sexual assault and 1,856 for social reasons. Although 68% of forensic physicians indi-cated that they believed virginity examinations are inap-propriate in the absence of an allegation of sexual assault, 45% had conducted examinations for social reasons. The
majority of the respondents (93%) agreed that the exami-nations are psychologically traumatic for the patient. In addition, more than half (58%) reported that at least 50% of patients undergo examinations against their will.334
Two national surveys of wife abuse within Palestinian soci-ety were conducted in 1994 and 1995. In the first national survey conducted in 1994, 31% of Palestinian women indi-cated that their husbands had tried to have sex with them without their consent. Furthermore, 27% of the Palestinian women reported that their husbands had sex with them against their will. Overall, about 37.6% of the Palestinian women reported that their husbands had sexually abused them on one or more occasions over the 12 months prior to the survey. Similar results were found in the second national survey. For example, 33% of the Palestinian women indicated that their husbands had tried to have sex with them without their consent during the 12 months pre-ceding the survey. Furthermore, 30% reported that their husbands had sex with them without their consent and overall, and 40% of the women reported that their hus-bands had sexually abused them on one or more occa-sions.335
In a survey of 914 pregnant women treated in health clinics in Morelos, Mexico, women who reported experiencing intimate partner violence before pregnancy were nearly 9.5 times more likely to experience abuse during pregnancy than women who did not indicate some form of pre-preg-nancy abuse. Emotional violence was the most prevalent form of abuse (20%) than physical or sexual abuse (10% respectively). Emotional violence tended to also increase throughout the duration of the pregnancy whereas physical violence/sexual violence tended to decrease throughout
Same-Sex Sexual Assault
70% of lesbians responding to a survey regarding same-sex sexual violence indicated that as a group they had experienced 91 instances of sexual violence within the con-text of a relationship. More than half of the women in the study indicated that they had experienced more than one abusive relationship in their lifetime.337
In a study of 162 gay men and 111 lesbians, 52% reported at least one incident of sexual coercion by same-sex part
334 “Virginity Examinations in Turkey: Role of Forensic Physicians in Controlling Female Sexuality,” JAMA, August 4, 1999 . volume 282, _No. 5, 485-490.
335 Muhammad, M Haj-Yahia, “The Incidence of Wife Abuse and Battering and Some Sociodemographic Correlates as Revealed by Two National Survey in Palestinian Society,” 2000, Journal of Family Violence, 15(4), 347-374.
336 Castro, R., Peek-Asa, C., Ruiz, A. (2003). “Violence Against Women in Mexico: A Study of Abuse Before and During Pregnancy” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 93, No. 7, 1110-1116
337 Girshick, L.B. (2001). Woman-To-Woman Sexual Violence: Does She Call it Rape? Boston: Northeastern University Press
338 Waldner-Haugrud, Lisa K. and Vaden Gratch, Linda. 1997. “Sexual Coercion in Gay/Lesbian Relationships: Descriptives and Gender Differences.” Violence and Victims 12(1): 87-98.
339 Saltzman L, Fanslow J, McManon P, Shelley G, 1999. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Intimate Partner Violence Surveillance: uni-form definitions and recommended data elements. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
340 Catalano, S. (2006). Crime Victimization, 2005.
341 Stermac, L., Del Bove, G., Addison, M. (2004). “Stranger and Acquaintance Sexual Assault of Adult Males” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 19, No. 8: 901-916.
342 Davies, M., Pollard, P. & Archer, J. (2000) “The Influence of Victim Gender and Sexual Orientation on Blame Towards the Victim In Depicted Stranger Rape” Violence and Victims Vol. 16, No. 6 607-619.
343 Ford, T.M., Liwag-McLamb, M.G., & Foley, L.A. (1998) “Perceptions of Rape Based on Sex and Sexual Orientation of the Victim” Journal of Social Behavior and Personality Vol. 13. No. 4, 253-263.
344 Mitchell, D., Hirchman, R. & Nagayama Hall,
G.C. (1999) “Attribution of Victim Responsibility,
Pleasure & Trauma in Male Rape” Journal of Sex Research Vol. 36, No. 4, 369-373.
ners. Gay men experienced 1.6 incidents per person; while lesbians experienced 1.2 incidents per person.338
Men living with male intimate partners experience more intimate partner violence than do men living with female intimate partners. 15% of men who lived with a man as a couple reported being raped/assaulted or stalked by a male
Male Victims of Sexual Assault
According to data from the National Crime Victimization Survey, 15,130 men age 12 and older reported being raped or sexually assaulted.340
Victim and assault characteristics of men (64 who had been sexually assaulted by a stranger, and 81 who had been sexually assaulted by an acquaintance) presenting to a sexual assault care center were measured and compared to those of the 106 women who presented during that same period:341
Male victims in this sample were more likely to be young, single men who reported high rates of vulnerabil-ity such as homelessness and physical, psychiatric and cognitive disabilities when compared to the characteris-tics of the women who presented to the care center.
Male stranger rape victims were more likely to have had their assaults involve weapons and physical vio-lence when compared to the characteristics of the assaults of women who presented to the care center.
In a study of British college students, 14% of males (com-pared with 24% of females) had experienced forced sexual contact or intercourse at least once in their lives. Male victims were found to experience high levels of self-blame, depression and other negative attributions after sexual assault.342
Results of an experimental study indicated that male vic-tims are often assessed more blame for their assaults than female victims.343
When presented with vignettes depicting male-on-male sexual assault, college students in a recent study routinely attributed more pleasure and less trauma when the victim was homosexual. Male study participants attributed more responsibility and pleasure to a male victim than did female participants.344
A review of prior research studies found that only 56% of male child sexual assault victims were referred to mental health treatment. However, when abused boys were offered post-abuse counseling. 73-77% attended at least one ses-sion. Other studies consistently showed that police involve-ment was infrequent in male child sexual abuse cases (13% of the cases), low post-disclosure medical examinations (20-58% of the cases), and that cases involving males were prosecuted less often than female sexual abuse cases.345
According to data collected from the National Incident-Based Reporting System, juvenile males (under the age of 18) rep-resented a higher percentage of victims (18%) in reported incidences of sexual assault than adult males (4%). Males represented 15% of the juvenile victims of sexual assault with an object, 20% of juvenile victims of forcible fondling and 59% of juvenile victims of forcible sodomy. The per-centages increase for male victims under the age of 12.346
In a study of male survivors sexually abused as children, over 80% had a history of substance abuse; 50% had suici-dal thoughts; 23% had attempted suicide; and almost 70% had received psychological treatment.347
An estimated 92,700 men are forcibly raped each year in the United States.348
While 9 out of 10 rape victims are women, men and boys are also victimized by this crime. In 1995, 32,130 males age 12 and older were victims of rape, attempted rape, or sexual assault.349
Men in a sample for a recent study indicated that 35% had experienced non-consensual sex in which either as an adult or a child, someone had coerced or forced them into having sex against their will. 49% reported that more than one dif-ferent perpetrator forced or coerced them into having sex in their lifetime and 64% of the men reported having had force or coercion used in more than one occasion in their lifetime. Only 39% of the men in the study reporting victimization had ever received any counseling to help them deal with the sexual abuse.350
Sexual Violence Against Women of Color
From telephone interviews with 336 Asian American women between the ages of 18-34 who reside in the San Francisco and Los Angeles areas, the National Asian Women’s Health Organization found that 16% of the respondents reported
345 Holmes, W.C. & Slap, G.B. (1998) “Sexual Abuse of Boys: Definition, Prevalence, Correlates, Sequale and Management” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association Vol. 280, No. 21, 1855-1862.
346 Snyder, H.N.,2000.
347 Lisak, D., 1994. “The Psychological Impact of Sexual Abuse: Content Analysis of Interviews with Male Survivors. Journal of Traumatic Stress 7, no 4, 1994: 525-548
348 Tjaden and Thoennes, November 1998.
349 National Crime Victimization Survey. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, 1996.
350 Ratner, et al. (2003).
351 Asian Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence. (2002) Fact Sheet on Domestic Violence in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities San Francisco, CA: Asian Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence.
352 Rennison, C.M. (2002). Hispanic Victims of Violent Crime. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics: U.S. Department of Justice.
353 Rennison, C.M. (2001). Intimate Partner Violence and Age of the Victim: 1993-1999 Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics: U.S. Department of Justice
354 Gossett, J.L, and Byrne, S. (2002) “Click Here” A Content Analysis of Internet Rape Sites Gender & Society, Vol. 16, No. 5 689-709.
355 Lund, L.E. (May, 2002) Incidence of Non-Fatal Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in California, 1998-1999, Report No. 4. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Health Services, Epidemiology and Prevention for Injury Control (EPIC) Branch.
356 Gordon, J. and Van Hightower, N.R., 1999. “Intimate Victimization of Latina Farm Workers: a Research Summary.” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(4), 502-7.
357 Davis, R. and Erez, E., 1998. Immigrant Populations as Victims: Towards a Multicultural Criminal Justice System. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice.
having experienced “pressure to have sex” without their consent by an intimate partner.”351
According to an analysis of National Crime Victimization Survey data, persons of Hispanic origin accounted for 11% of all victims of violent crime. They represented 2% of all victims who were raped/sexually assaulted in 2000.352
In a study analyzing previous survey data for trends, researchers note that: African-American women and Caucasian women experienced intimate partner violence at similar rates for every age range except 20-24 years of age. In that range, African American women were victimized at a higher rate.353
In a content analysis of 31 pornographic websites which advertised scenes depicting the rape or torture of women, nearly half of the sites used depictions of Asian women as the rape victim.354
In an analysis of data from the California Women’s Health Survey, researchers found that African-American women were more likely than Caucasian, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific Islander women to experience both minor (being pushed, grabbed, shoved etc) and severe (being kicked, bitten, hit with a fist etc.) intimate partner physical violence.355
An analysis of data collected in a 1994 survey conducted of 820 Latina farm workers by the Migrant Clinician’s Network indicated that 17% of the women reported physi-cal or sexual abuse by a husband, boyfriend, family mem-ber or companion. Those women whose partners used drugs or alcohol were more likely to be victimized than those whose partners did not. Women who were pregnant were less likely to be victimized according to this study.356
A survey of law enforcement and prosecutorial officials from 150 of the most populous cities across the United States indicated that:357
One quarter of the respondents identified domestic violence as a crime least likely to be reported by immigrant and migrant populations. Two-thirds of the respondents identified sexual assault and gang violence as crimes least likely to be reported by immigrant and migrant populations.
Language barriers (47%), cultural differences (22%), and lack of knowledge about the criminal justice sys-tem (15%) were believed by respondents to be the most common reasons for underreporting by these groups.
. To combat the barriers to service of immigrant and migrant communities, 54% of the criminal justice and law enforcement organizations surveyed indicated that they provided multilingual assistance or translators, 30% provided brochures in other languages, 25% hold regular meetings with ethnic community leaders, 60% work with community liaison committees, and over 60% of the respondents provided cultural sensitivity training to their staff.
The Nation’s population of American Indians age 12 or older experienced an annual average of 8,400 rapes or sex-ual assaults during 1992-96.358
American Indian victims of rape/sexual assault most often reported that the victimization involved an offender of a different race. About 9 in 10 American Indian victims of rape or sexual assault were estimated to have had assailants who were white or black.359
A study surveying a stratified random sample of 126 African-American women residents of Los Angeles County indicated that 1 in 4 African-American women reported at least one incident of an attempted or completed rape since the age of 18.360
A 1994 survey of 243 women indicated that 44.8% of African-American women, 38% of white women, 25.6% of Latinas, and 21.1% of Asian-American women had a history of child sexual abuse. The rates for adult rape show African-American women disclosing the highest rate 37.9%, followed by white women (25.5%), Latinas (17.9%), and Asian-Americans at 10.5%. More than half (61.5%) of the African-American women who were sexual-ly abused in childhood reported rape as an adult, white women (44.2%), Latinas (40.0%) and Asian-Americans (25.0%).361
The National Violence Against Women Survey found that among women of different racial and ethnic backgrounds, the difference in the prevalence of rape disclosed to survey interviewers was statistically significant. According to the survey’s categories, American Indian/Alaska Native women were most likely to report rape victimization while Asian/Pacific Islander women were least likely to report rape victimization. In this survey, 34.1% of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 24.4% of women of mixed race, 18.8% of African-American women, 17.7% of white women, and 6.8% of Asian/Pacific Islander women report
358 Greenfeld, L. and Smith, S., 1997. American Indians and Crime. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Washington, D.C.
360 Koss, Mary P. and Harvey, M.R., 1991. The Rape Victim: Clinical and Community Interventions. Newbury Park: Sage Publications. Citing Gail E. Wyatt, 1984. Wyatt Sexual History Questionnaire. Los Angeles, CA: Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California.
361 Urquiza, Anthony J. and Goodlin-Jones, Beth L., 1994: 223-232.
ed rape victimization. The survey authors state that more research is needed to determine how much of this differ-ence can be explained by the respondent’s willingness to report information to interviewers and how much by social, demographic, and environmental factors.362
Hispanic women were more likely to report rape victimiza-tion than non-Hispanic women.363
African Americans experienced rape/sexual assault at higher rates than whites, and Hispanics and non-Hispanics were victims of overall violent crime and rape or sexual assault at similar rates in 1999.364
According to the Sourcebook on Criminal Justice Statistics published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics:365
There were 8,320 rapes and 2,250 sexual assaults against Hispanics reported to law enforcement in 1998.
There were 15,070 rapes and 24,890 sexual assaults against African Americans reported to law enforcement in 1998.
In a study of 113 African American women with document-ed histories of childhood sexual abuse, it was found that 30% of participants were revictimized and physical force predicted subsequent victimization.366
A study of sexual abuse in the South Asian immigrant community was conducted between 1991 and 1993. Interviewed were Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi women ranging in age from early twenties to late forties with different socioeconomic backgrounds and different religions. About 60% of the women spoke of being forced to have sex with their husbands against their will.367
A nationwide mail survey in Japan sought to find out about the abuse experiences of Japanese women by their male intimate partners. Of the 796 respondents, 473 (59.4%) reported having experienced one or more acts they considered sexually abusive. More than 80% of these women indicated having been forced to have sex. About 40% reported having been forced to have sex when they were concerned about family members being present or nearby.368
A survey of Latina women in an outpatient clinic indicated that the most often cited reasons for not disclosing abuse were: language barriers (34%) and concerns about immi-gration authorities (21%).369
362 Tjaden and Thoennes, November 1998.
363 Tjaden, P. and Thoennes, N., 2000. Extent, Nature and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
364 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000. Criminal Victimization 1999: Changes 1998-99 with Trends 1993-99. National Crime Victimization Survey, Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
365 Bureau of Justice Statistics. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 1999. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice: 183-184.
366 West, C., Williams, L., Siegel, J., February 2000. “Adult Sexual Revictimization Among Black Women Sexually Abused in Childhood: A Prospective Examination of Serious Consequences of Abuse,” Child Maltreatment, 5(1).
367 Abraham, Margaret. “Sexual Abuse in South Asian Immigrant Marriages,” Violence Against Women, Vol. 5, No. 6, June 1999: 591-618.
368 Sorenson, Susan B.; Yoshihama, Mieko. “Physical, Sexual, and Emotional Abuse by Male Intimates: Experiences of Women in Japan,” Violence and Victims, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1994: 63-75
369 Rodriguez, et al. (2000). “Factors Associatedwith Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence toClinicians” Journal of Family Practitioners.
Vol. 56, 338.
A recent study of women presenting to a hospital based sexual assault care center in Canada after having been sexually assaulted by a spouse (n=97), acquaintance (n=194) or boyfriend (n=256) indicated that:370
Women who were assaulted by spouses presented for treatment sooner than other groups and were more likely to call the police.
Women who reported being sexually assaulted by a spouse were older than women sexually assaulted by boyfriends or acquaintances.
Women assaulted by a current/ex-boyfriend or spouse were more likely to complete a physical exam and evi-dence kit than those who were assaulted by an acquaintance.
Spousal coercion often took the form of: assaults against a sleeping victim, verbal threats, physical restraints, use of drugs or alcohol to incapacitate or lower resistance, or physical violence. Boyfriends were more likely to have used verbal or physical threats. Physical violence was most likely to be used by spouses.
Women who were assaulted by boyfriends and spouses were significantly more likely to present with physical injuries than women assaulted by acquaintances.
Nearly 25 million women and 7 million men are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner in their lifetime.371
Sexual assault is reported by 33%-46% of women who are being physically assaulted by their husbands.372
The National Crime Victimization Survey of 1994 indicates that of the 45,890 rapes/sexual assaults committed by someone the victim knew, at least half were committed by the victim’s spouse and greater than a quarter were com-mitted by an ex-spouse.373
Men who admitted having forced their wives to have sex were 2.6 times more likely than other men to have caused an unplanned pregnancy.374
A study of a random sample of 930 women age 18 or older indicated that nearly 14% of the women who had ever been married were the victims of at least one completed or attempted rape by their husbands or ex-husbands.375
370 Stermac, L., Del Bove, G., & Addison, M. (2001). “Violence, Injury and Presentation Patterns in Spousal Sexual Assault Cases” Violence Against Women Vol. 7, No. 11, 1218-1233.
371 Tjaden and Thoennes, 1998.
372 American Medical Assoc., 1995.
373 Criminal Victimization in the United States, 1994.
374 Population Reports: Ending Violence Against Women, 2000.
375 Russell, Diana, 1990. Rape in Marriage. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
376 Tjaden and Thoennes, November 1998.
377 Randall and Haskell, 1995.
378 Rennison, C. & Welchans, S., 2000. Intimate Partner Violence: Special Report. Bureau of Justice Statistics, United States Department of Justice.
The National Violence Against Women Survey reported the following statistics:376
25% of surveyed women and 8% of surveyed men said they were raped and/or physically assaulted by a current or former spouse, cohabiting partner, or date in their lifetime,
7.7% of women and .3% of men said that they had been raped by an intimate partner in their lifetime. 22.1% of women and 7.4% of men said that they had been physically assaulted by an intimate partner in their lifetime,
According to survey estimates, approximately 1.5 mil-lion women and 834,000 men are raped and/or physi-cally assaulted by an intimate partner annually in the United States, and
Violence against women is primarily partner violence. 76% of the women who were raped and/or physically assaulted since age 18 were assaulted by a current or former husband, cohabiting partner, or date, compared with 18% of the men. 17% of the women surveyed were raped and/or physically assaulted by an acquaintance, such as a friend, neighbor, or coworker; 14% were victimized by a stranger, and 9% were victimized by a relative other than a husband. Total percentages exceed 100 because some victims had multiple perpetrators.
30% of the adult sexual assault cases (after 16 years of age) reported in the Women’s Safety Project Survey were perpetrated by men who were in intimate relationships with the women they assaulted. These men were hus-bands, common-law partners, or boyfriends. An additional 28% of the cases were perpetrated by men who were dates and/or acquaintances of the women they sexually assaulted. When other known assailants (co-workers, authority figures) are included, a total of 83.3% of the sexual assault cases were perpetrated by men known to the women they assaulted.377
Approximately 60% of female and male victims of some form of intimate partner violence were injured but not treated.378
Studies have indicated a higher prevalence of partner/spousal violence in young partners in the early stages of marriage. Highest rates were with partners 30 years old and younger with the highest prevalence among those in the 18-24 year old age group.379
Women living with female intimate partners experience less intimate partner violence (11%) than women living with male intimate partners (30.4%).380
A recent study found that the number of forced sexual experiences a woman has correlates significantly with depression. Women who experienced more sexual assaults reported increased levels of depression, as well as present-ing with significantly more gynecological problems than women who were not sexually abused.381
Over half of the women in a recent survey on separation/divorce sexual assault indicated that they had been assaulted by their partners when they wanted to leave, 32% indicated they had been assaulted during the process of leaving and 37% had been assaulted by their partner after they had left the relationship.382
According to the California Statutory Rape Vertical Prosecution Program, as of June 30, 1998, approximately 17,273 total cases had been referred to participating pro-grams for prosecution, 8,205 of those cases had been filed in court with 5,928 (72%) of those cases resulting in a conviction.383
For the fiscal year ending June 1999 the California Statutory Rape Vertical Prosecution Program reported the following:384
6,016 cases were referred to the program, 2,826 (47%) were prosecuted and 2,110 (75%) of those were com-pleted to conviction.
The average age of the defendants prosecuted was 20-24 years old. 70% were older than the age of 20. Approximately 16% were over the age of 30. There was more than a 5 year age difference between victim and perpetrator in 58% of the cases.
61% of the victims were age 15 or younger (16% were age 13 or younger).
Of the reported cases, 696 (25%) girls reported becom-ing pregnant as a result of statutory rape. Of those, 564 pregnancies resulted in live births by June 30, 1999.
A survey of 2,829 sixth-grade students at 19 urban,
379 Kantor & Jasinski, 1998. “Dynamics and Risk Factors in Partner Violence,” Partner Violence: a comprehensive review of 20 years of research. Thousand Oaks, California; Sage Publications.
380 Tjaden, Patricia and Thoennes, Nancy, July 2000. Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey, Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
381 Campbell, R. & Soeken. (1999). “Forced Sex and Intimate Partner Violence: Effects on Women’s Risk and Women’s Health.” Violence Against Women Vol. 5, 1017-1035.
382 DeKeseredy, W.S., Joseph, C., Edgar, J. (2003). “Understanding Separation/Divorce Sexual Assault in Rural Communities: The Contributions of an Exploratory Study” A research paper presented at the 2003 National Institute of Justice Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation. Washington, D.C.
383 Office of Criminal Justice Planning. (2000). Statutory Rape Vertical Prosecution Fourth Year Report. Sacramento, CA: Office of the Governor.
ethnically diverse middle schools in Northern California revealed:385
Of the 45% of the respondents indicating that they had a serious boyfriend or girlfriend, 9% reported that their boyfriend or girlfriend was more than 2 years older than they were.
Overall, only 4% of the students reported ever having sex. However, students with an older boyfriend or girlfriend were over 30 times more likely than their peers to ever have had sex. They also reported more unwanted sexual advances.
The greater the age difference between the older boyfriend or girlfriend, the more likely the students were to report having initiated sexual intercourse during or before sixth grade.
A recent study by the Population Reference Bureau found that about two-thirds of births to teenage girls nationwide are fathered by adult men age 20 or older.386
A recent study published in the American Journal of Public Health found that adult men fathered two-thirds of the infants born to school-aged mothers in California in 1993. On average, these men were 4.2 years older than the sen-ior-high mothers and 6.7 years older than the junior-high mothers.387
The Alan Guttmacher Institute’s 1994 report, “Sex and America’s Teenagers,” found that 6 of 10 girls who had sex before age 15 were coerced by males an average of six years their senior.388
Among all sexually active women age 15-44, 10% had a partner who was three or more years younger, 52% a partner who was within two years of their age, 20% a partner who was 3-5 years older, and 18% a partner who was six or more years older. In contrast, 64% of sexually active women aged 15-17 had a partner within two years of their age, 29% a partner who was 3-5 years older, and 7% a partner who was six or more years older. Among women younger than 18, the pregnancy rate among those with a partner who was six or more years older was 3.7 times as high as the rate among those whose partner was no more than two years older.389
Women aged 15-17 who have ever been forced to have sex are twice as likely as those who have not to have a partner who is 3-5 years older.390
385 Marin, B.V., Coyle, K.K., Gomez, C.A., Carvajal, S.C., Kirby, D.B. (2000). “Older Boyfriends and Girlfriends Increased Risk of Sexual Initation in Young Adolescents” Journal of Adolescent Health. Vol. 27, No. 6, 409-418.
386 De Vita, Carol J., “The United States at Mid-Decade,” Population Bulletin, Vol. 50, No. 4 Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, Inc., March 1996.
387 Males, M. and Chew, K., “The Ages of Fathers in California Adolescent Births,” 1993, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 4, April 1996: 565-568.
388 The Alan Guttmacher Institute, Sex and America’s Teenagers, 1994.
389 Miller, Darroch JE, Landry, DJ, Osiak, S. “Age Difference Between Sexual Partners in the United States,” Family Planning Perspectives 31(4), July/August, 1999: 160.
In Fiscal Year 2003, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) received 13,566 new charges of sexual harassment. Almost 15% of those charges were filed by males. EEOC resolved 14,534 sexual harassment charges in FY 2003 and recovered $50 million in monetary benefits for charging parties and other aggrieved individuals (not includ-ing monetary benefits obtained through litigation).391
In a sample of 712 students attending a large suburban/rural high school in Massachusetts, 35% of the 332 students who worked part-time reported experiencing sexual harassment (63% girls, 37% boys).392
Researchers gathered a sample of college students (324) to serve as mock jurors in a sexual harassment case in which a male employee accused his female employer of sexual harassment. The purpose of the study was to measure the jurors belief in the merits of the case based on the attrac-tiveness of the litigants. Results showed:393
Jurors were more certain of the guilt of the female defendant when the male plaintiff was attractive.
When the male was attractive, jurors were more than twice as likely to find in his favor and were somewhat more certain of the guilt of the defendant than when the male was unattractive.
Male jurors’ verdicts were most significantly affected when both the plaintiff and defendant were attractive than when the defendant was not attractive. Female jurors were most influenced when the defendant was unattractive but not when the defendant was attractive.
A survey of 232 businesses in 2000 concerned the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace. Among the findings were that:394
Over a third of the respondents indicated that of the sexual harassment complaints they received, 75% of them warranted investigation. Fewer than 25% of the complaints investigated were unsubstantiated or unfounded.
87% of the complaints came from front line staff.
The most common complaints cited were improper sexual conduct (65%); verbal harassment (53%); and infliction of emotional distress (48%).
391 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2004) Sexual Harassment Charge Statistics FY93-03 Washington, D.C.: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. [available http://www.eeoc.gov/stats/harass.html]
392 Fineran, S. (2002) “Adolescents at Work: Gender Issues and Sexual Harassment”, Violence Against Women, Vol. 8 No. 8: 953-967.
393 Wuensch, K.L., and Moore, C.H. (2004). “Effects of Physical Attractiveness on Evaluations of a Male Employee’s Allegation of Sexual Harassment by his Female Employee” Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 144, No. 2,.207-218.
394 Institute of Management and Administration. (2002). Human Resource Management Report. New York: IOMA,
After conducting an analysis of 21 adolescent sexuality education curricula with publication dates of 1988 or later, researchers noted that only three of the curricula included any mention of the concepts of “date rape” or “sexual coercion”. They also noted that “sexual harassment” was not addressed in any of the curricula despite statistical data showing sexual harassment to be a growing concern among adolescent youth.395
In a study of female faculty, staff and students of a U.S. Midwestern university, researchers concluded that organi-zational risk factors for sexual harassment include:396
Lack of formal sexual harassment policies.
Lack of employee knowledge of formal policies for grievances.
Unprofessional work atmosphere (lewd language etc.)
Existence of sexist attitudes in the workplace among co-workers.
Skewed sex ratios in the workplace.
A study of 342 high school students in a large Midwestern town found that 87% of girls and 79% of boys report experiencing peer sexual harassment, whereas 77% of girls and 72% of boys report sexually harassing their peers during the school year. Girls experienced the more overtly sexual forms of harassment more often than boys and boys perpetrated sexual harassing behaviors more often than girls. Girls were more likely than boys to be pressured for a date, called sexually offensive names, cornered sexually, and pressured to do something sexual.397
Eighty-one weeknight prime time television shows were recorded for forty-eight hours and analyzed for sexual harassment content from September 19, 1991 to November 4, 1991. Programs were randomly selected from those aired on the three major networks (ABC, CBS, NBC). 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; the average number of incidents was 3.4.398
According to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, in 1999 there were 15,222 charges filed for sexual harassment. Of those, 87.9% were filed by women.399
Based on data gathered from the national Women Physicians’ Health Study, 47.7% of women physicians reported experiencing gender-based harassment, and
395 Beyer, C. and Ogletree, R., 1998. “Sexual Coercion Content in 21 Sexuality Education Curricula.” Journal of School Health. Vol 68. 371.
396 O’Hare, E. and O’Donohugh, W., 1998. “Sexual Harassment: Identifying Risk Factors.” Archives of Sexual Behavior, 27(6) 561-580.
397 Fineran, Susan and Bennett, Larry. “Gender
and Power Issues of Peer Sexual Harassment Among Teenagers,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Volume 14, Number 6, June 1999:
398 Grauerholz, Elizabeth and King, Amy. “Prime Time Sexual Harassment,” Violence Against Women, Volume 3, Number 2, April 1997.
399 Sexual Harassment Charges Equal Employment Opportunity Commission & Fair Employment Practice Agencies Combined, U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, FY 1999.
36.9% reported sexual harassment.400
In a 1992 study of both male and female workers in Taipei, it was found that 1 in 4 workers experienced some sort of sexual harassment in the workplace: 36% of the surveyed women and 13% of the surveyed men.401
A 1995 study of employees in the Federal workplace found that:402
In 1994, 44% of women and 19% of men had experi-enced some form of unwanted sexual attention during the preceding two years.
The percentage of women who reported having been subjected to attempted or actual rape or assault rose from 0.8 percent in 1987 to 4 percent in 1994.
Sexual harassment cost the Federal Government an estimated $327 million during the 2-year period April 1992 to April 1994.
Coworkers and other employees constitute 77% of the harassers, immediate and/or higher level supervisors constitute 28% of the harassers, 3% are subordinates and 7% are other or unknown harassers.
A study surveying a stratified random sample of 126 African-American and 122 Caucasian women residents of Los Angeles County indicated that:403
44% of women reported sexual harassment at work, Most women reported harassment by male superiors (53%) and coworkers (33%),
67% of African American compared with 45% of Caucasian women reported having been propositioned in the workplace, and
More than 50% of all harassment incidents on the job involved propositions ranging from lewd remarks to promises of promotions in exchange for sexual favors.
A 1992 Seventeen magazine survey of over 4,200 girls regarding sexual harassment in schools found that:404
The most common forms of sexual harassment were receiving sexual comments, gestures or looks (reported by 89%) and being touched, pinched or grabbed (reported by 83%),
When sexual harassment occurs, it is not a one-time only event.39% of the young women reported being
400 Frank, Erica; Brogan, Donna; Schiffman, Melissa. “Prevalence and Correlates of Harassment Among U.S. Women Physicians,” Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 158, Feb. 23, 1998: 352-352.
401 Luo, Tsun-Yin. “Sexual Harassment in the Chinese Workplace,” Violence Against Women, Vol. 2, No. 3, September 1996: 284-301.
402 United States Merit Systems Protection Board, Report to the President and the Congress of the United States, 1995.
403 Wyatt, Gail E. and Reiderle, Monika. 1995. “The Prevalence and Context of Sexual Harassment Among African American and White American Women.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 10(3): 309-321.
404 Stein, Nan, Marshall, Nancy L., and Tropp, Linda R., 1993. Secrets in Public: Sexual Harassment in Our Schools. Massachusetts: Wellesley College Center for Research on Women.
405 Mitchell, K.J., Finkelhor, D., and Wolak, J. (2003). “The Exposure of Youth to Unwanted Sexual Material on the Internet: A National Survey of Risk, Impact, & Prevention” Youth & Society Vol. 34, No. 3, 330-358.
406 Stanley, J, (2003). “Downtime for Children on the Internet” Family Matters No. 65: 22-27.
harassed at school on a daily basis during the last year,
Almost two-thirds of the girls told their harassers to stop, and over one-third resisted with physical force,
Young women are most often harassed by fellow students, but 4% of the girls reported being harassed by teachers, administrators, or other school staff,
Most harassers are male,
Even when young women told a teacher or administra-tor about the harassment, nothing happened to the harasser in 45% of the incidents reported, and
Only 8% of the young women reported that their schools had, and enforced, a policy on sexual harassment.
Online Sexual Abuse
In a national sample of Internet-using youth consisting of 1,501 young people between the ages of 10 and 17 (796 boys and 705 girls) survey data showed:405
One quarter (25%) of the youth who used the Internet regularly had one or more unwanted exposures to sex-ual pictures while online in the past year. Seventy-three percent of these exposures occurred while the youth was searching or surfing the Internet, and 27% happened while opening e-mail or clicking on links in e-mail or Instant Messages.
Most of the unwanted exposures (67%) happened while the youth was using the Internet at home, but 15% happened at school, and 3% happened in libraries. The remainder occurred at other homes and other locations.
Most of the imagery was of nude persons, but 32% showed people having sex, and 7% involved violence in addition to the nudity and sex.
A review of Australian research which sampled 200 chil-dren, found that 38 % of boys and 2% of girls aged 16 and 17 years deliberately use the Internet to see sexually explicit material. They also found that 84 percent of sur-veyed boys and 60 per cent of girls had unwanted expo-sure to sexual material.406
A national study involving 1,246 teenage girls scouts ages 13.18 found that:407
Almost a third of teen girls had experienced sexual harassment in online chat rooms.
30% reported being harassed by unsolicited naked pic-tures of men, demands for personal details such as bra size, and requests for cyber sex. Yet just 7% of harassed girls had told their parents what happened. Researchers found that many girls didn't tell their par-ents about online harassment because they were wor-ried about having their Internet use restricted.
In reviewing and analyzing the 609 cases in which the victim of online harassment provided demographic data, Working to Halt Online Abuse (WHOA) noted that between January 1, 2000 and December 2001:408
83% of the victims were women.
64% of the harassers were men.
Of those victims supplying age data, 30% were between the ages of 18-30, 16% were between 31-40 years old, and 7% were over the age of 40. 49% of the victims indicated that they had no prior relationship or contact with the harasser, 46% were being harassed by someone they had prior contact with, and 5% said they did not know whether or not they had prior con-tact.
Most cases were resolved after reports to harasser’s Internet Service Provider (36%), 20% of the victims reported that the harassment stopped only after the changed their online behavior or identity and 15% went on to report to law enforcement.
When asked how the harassment began or where the victim first encountered the harasser, the top three places were: E-mail 39%, Chat Room 15% and Message Board/Forum 11%.
California, Texas, and New York were the states which had the highest proportion of victim’s and harassers according to law enforcement.
In 60% of cases, the harassment did not escalate. Over 26% of cases did escalate to offline harassment (threats or stalking)
407 Roban, W. (2002) The Net: Effect: Girls and the New Media. New York : Girl Scouts Research Institute.
408 Working to Halt Online Abuse (WHOA) 2002. Online Harassment Statistics. 2000-2001. [available at http:// www.haltabuse.org]
409 Finkelhor, D. et al. Online Victimization: A Report on the Nation’s Youth. The Crimes Against Children Research Center. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, June 2000.
410 Wolak, J., Mitchell, K., and Finkelhor, D. (2003). Internet Sex Crimes Against Minors: The Response of Law Enforcement. Alexandria, VA: National Center for missing and Exploited Children. [available at: http://www.missingkids.org]
. Before contacting (WHOA) for help, victims indicated they reported the harassment to one of the following:
Law enforcement 32%
Harasser’s Internet Service Provider (ISP) 29%
No one 18%
Forum/Board Moderator or Web Hosting Forum 7%.
Based on interviews with a nationally representative sample of 1,501 youth ages 10 to 17 who use the Internet regularly:409
Approximately 1 in 5 received a sexual solicitation or approach over the Internet in the last year.
1 in 33 received an aggressive sexual solicitation (a solicitor who asked to meet them somewhere; called them on the telephone; sent them regular mail, money, or gifts).
1 in 4 had an unwanted exposure to pictures of naked people or people having sex in the last year.
1 in 17 was threatened or harassed.
Less than 10% of sexual solicitations and only 3% of unwanted exposure episodes were reported to authori-ties (e.g. law-enforcement agency, Internet Service Provider, or a hotline).
77% of targeted youth were age 14 or older.
Girls were targeted at almost twice the rate of boys (66% versus 34%)
Adults (ages 18 to 25) were responsible for 24% of sexual solicitations and 34% of aggressive sexual solicitations, while juveniles made 48% of sexual and aggressive solicitations.
Adults over 25 comprised 4% of the sexual solicitors.
In 26% of the incidents where sexual materials were encountered while “surfing,” youth reported they were brought to another sex site when they tried to exit the site they were in.
A study conducted using a national sample of 2,574 state, county and local law enforcement agencies revealed:410 60% of all online teens have received an e-mail or instant message from a stranger; 63% of those receiving e-mails or instant messages from strangers say they have respond-ed to strangers online.411
. In the 12 month period from July 2000 to June 2001 an
estimated 2,577 arrests for Internet sex crimes were
made. 39% of all arrests were for Internet crimes
against identified victims (in which the offender used
the Internet to initiate a relationship with the victim
(20%) or the offender was a family member or prior
acquaintance and used the Internet to exploit the vic
tim via the production of child pornography). 25% of
arrests were for Internet solicitations of undercover law
enforcement and 36% were for possession, distribution
or trade of child pornography.
. 99% of the offenders were male (99%), non-Hispanic
White (92%), older than 25 (86%) and acted alone in
the crimes they committed (97%). Few of those arrest
ed (11%) were known to be violent in any manner and
about 10% had prior arrests for sexually offending
against minors. 67% of all offenders possessed child
. 83% of the state charges and 89% of the federal
charges reported were resolved with a guilty plea.
12% of state and 4% of federal cases were resolved
with a conviction after trial (in 5% of state and 7% of
federal cases the charges were dropped or dismissed).
No federal case and less than 1% of state cases result
ed in an acquittal during this period.
. 50% of state and 74% of federal offenders were
incarcerated. Over 70% of the offenders prosecuted on
both a state and federal level became registered sex
411 Lenhart, A., Raine L., Lewis, O. (2001) Teenage Life Online: the Rise of the Instant Message Generation and the Internet’s Impact on Friendships and Family Relationships. Pew Internet & American Life Project, Washington, D.C.
An exploratory study of 339 students on the campus of the University of New Hampshire found that:412
10-15% of the students reported having experienced online harassment from either strangers, an acquain-tance or significant other.
Those harassed by strangers most often were harassed by e-mail or instant message.
E-mail harassment (getting repeated e-mail from some-one unknown or barely known that threatened, insult-ed or harassed) was more prevalent among students identifying themselves as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered than students identifying themselves as heterosexual.
Nearly 59% of all students in the survey reported receiving unwanted pornography.
Only 7% of students who said they had been harassed reported the harassment to an authority.
66% of the 114 prosecutor’s offices in large districts (those serving 500,000 or more) reported prosecuting cyberstalk-ing crimes in 2001.413
On February 26, 1999, Vice President Al Gore asked the Attorney General to study the problem of cyber stalking. The following statistics are excerpts from this report:414
The Los Angeles District Attorney’s Office estimates that e-mail or other electronic communication were a factor in approximately 20% of the roughly 600 cases handled by the Stalking and Threat Assessment Unit involving cyber stalking.
The Computer Investigations and Technology Unit of the New York City Police Department estimates that almost 40 percent of the caseload in the unit involves electronic threats and harassment . and virtually all of these have occurred in the past three to four years.
Internet Service Providers (ISP) are receiving a growing
412 Finn, J. (2004). ”A Survey of Online Harassment at a University Campus” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 19, No. 4, 468-483.
413 DeFrances, C.J. December, 2001. National Survey of Prosecutors: State Court Prosecutors in Large Districts, 2001. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics. U.S. Department of Justice.
414 Cyber stalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry, August 1999. A Report from the Attorney General to the Vice President.
U.S. Department of Justice.
415 D’Ovidio, R., Doyle, J. (March 2003). “A Studyon Cyberstalking: Understanding InvestigativeHurdles” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
Vol. 72, No. 3, 10-17.
416 Brownstein, A. (2000). “In the Campus Shadows, Women Are Stalkers as Well as the Stalked” Chronicle of Higher Education, XLVII(15), A40-42.
417 Tjaden, P. (2000). “Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, Consequences of Violence Against Women” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice
number of complaints about harassing and threatening behavior online. One major ISP receives approximately 15 complaints per month of cyber stalking, in compari-son to virtually no complaints of cyber stalking just one to two years ago.
. Of the 201 cyber stalking cases investigated by the Computer Investigations and Technology Unit of the New York City Police Department between 1996-2000, 40% were closed with an arrest, 11% failed to produce evidence that a crime was committed and all other remaining cases were unresolved due to jurisdictional issues, uncooperative complainants, case transfer or exhaustion of all possible investigative leads without positively identifying a specific offender.415
A new survey of 756 students at the University of Pennsylvania and Rutgers University found that men accounted for 42% of on-campus stalking victims, com-pared with 2% of men in a recent survey of the national population. 58% of stalking victims were women. 56% campus stalkers were men and 43% were women. The survey found that 12% of students had been stalked, and that women stalkers were 3 times more likely to be found on campus than in the population as a whole. In general, researchers concluded that stalking is more common on college campuses than in the population at large.416
Stalking is more prevalent than previously thought:417
Considering stalking generally, 8.1% of surveyed women and 2.2% of surveyed men reported being stalked at some time in their life; 1.0 percent of women surveyed and 0.4 percent of men surveyed reported being stalked in the prior 12 months. Approximately 1 million women and 371,000 men are stalked annually in the United States.
Considering stalking by intimate partners specifically, almost 5% of surveyed women and 0.6% of surveyed men reported being stalked by a current or former spouse, cohabiting partner, or date at some time in their lifetime; 0.5% of surveyed women and 0.2% of surveyed men reported being stalked by such a partner in the previous 12 months. According to these esti
mates, 503,485 women and 185,496 men are stalked
by an intimate partner annually in the United States.
A study conducted using a sample of nearly 800 students on the campus of a Southeastern university revealed that:418
Female stalking victims were more likely to report their incidents to police. 9% of females reported having gone to court as a result of stalking and 1% reported obtain-ing a restraining order.
Female stalking victims were significantly more likely than male victims to take a drastic measure in response to stalking (i.e. changing job, changing tele-phone numbers, relocating, purchasing a gun etc.)
Males victims were less likely to report being threat-ened or physically harmed by their stalkers.
Only 26% of females and 39% of males indicated that their stalker was another student.
Males reported that their stalking incidents lasted longer than those of females (an average of 182 days as compared to 83 days for female victims)
According to the results of the National College Women Sexual Victimization Study, 13.1% of the women respond-ing to the survey reported having been stalked since the start of the school year.419
They reported their stalkers as being boyfriends (43%), classmates (25%), acquaintances (10%), co-workers (6%) or friends (6%)
The stalking typically involved the following behaviors: being telephoned (78%), waiting outside or inside places (48 percent), being watched from afar (44%), being followed (42%), being sent letters (31%), and being e-mailed (25%)
Almost two-thirds of those sampled indicated that they were stalked at least two to six times a week.
15% of the victims reported that their stalker threat-ened or attempted to physically harm them and 10% reported that their stalker forced or attempted sexual contact.
In the spring of 1995, 299 West Virginia University gradu-ates were recruited to complete a questionnaire that focused on the prevalence of stalking on campus. The
418 Bjerregaard, B., 2000. “An Empirical Study of Stalking Victimization,” Violence and Victims, 15(4), 389-406
419 Fisher, S., Cullen, F., Turner, M., 2000. The Sexual Victimization of College Women. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.
420 Fremouw, W., Westrup, D., and Pennypacker, J., 1997. “Stalking on Campus: The Prevalence and Strategies for Coping with Stalking,” Journal of Forensic Science, July 1997; 42(4): 666-669.
422 Meloy, J.R., Davis, B. and Lovette, J. 2001. “Risk Factors for Violence Among Stalkers.” Journal of Threat Assessment, Vol. 1, No. 1, 3-16.
423 Fein, R. and Vossekuil, B. 1998. “Preventing Attacks on Public Officials and Public Figures: a Secret Service Perspective.” In Meloy, J.R., (Ed.) The Psychology of Stalking: Clinical and Forensic
Perspectives. (pp 176-191). San Diego: Academic Press.
424 Tjaden, Patricia and Thoennes, Nancy, April 1998. Stalking in America: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Research Brief. National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
study found that 30% of the female students and 17% of the male students reported having been stalked; 80% reported that they knew their stalker.420
On one college campus, between 26.6% and 35.2% of female students and between 14.7% and 18.4% of male students have been stalked.421
In a study of “obsessional followers” charged with the crime of stalking and related offenses, 60% of the sample were physically violent toward a person and/or property. Those who were violent against person and/or property were significantly more likely to: have had a sexually intimate relationship with the victim, not have a major mental disorder and have made an explicit threat.422
Predatory violence (that which is planned, purposeful, emotionless and without autonomic arousal) by stalkers is most likely to occur when the stalking victim is a stranger or public figure.423
When asked why they chose not to report their stalking to the police, victims were most likely to state that their stalk-ing was not a police matter, they thought the police would not be able to do anything, or they feared reprisals from their stalkers.424
In their report, Stalking in America: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey, the U.S. Department of Justice reports the following findings:425
78% of stalking victims are female and 87% of stalking perpetrators are male,
Adults between 18 and 29 years old are the primary targets of stalking, comprising 52% of all victims,
Most stalking cases involve perpetrators and victims who know each other; only 23% of all female victims and 36% of all male victims are stalked by strangers,
Women are significantly more likely than men (59% and 30%, respectively) to be stalked by intimate part-ners, about half of whom stalk their partners while the relationship is intact,
There is a strong link between stalking and other forms of violence in intimate relationships . 81% of women who were stalked by a current or former husband or
cohabiting partner were also physically assaulted by that partner and 31% were also sexually assaulted by that partner,
Less than half of all stalking victims are directly threat-ened by their stalkers, even though the victims, by defi-nition in this survey, experience a high level of fear.
American Indian/Alaska Native women are significantly more likely to report being stalked than women of other racial or ethnic backgrounds. More research is needed to establish the degree of variance and to determine how much of the variance may be explained by demographic, social, and environmental factors,
About 50% of all stalking victims report their stalking to the police. About 25% of stalking cases reported to the police result in suspects being arrested. About 12% of all stalking cases result in criminal prosecution, and about 25% of female stalking victims and 10% of male stalking victims obtain restraining orders against their stalkers. Of all victims with restraining orders, 69% of women and 81% of men said that their stalkers violat-ed the order,
30% of female stalking victims and 20% of male stalk-ing victims seek psychological counseling as a result of their victimization, and
The average stalking case lasts 1.8 years.
Sexual Violence in
Campus Sexual Violence
A review of college alcohol study surveys designed to measure students’ use of alcohol across 119 college cam-puses nationwide indicated that 4.7% of the women sur-veyed reported being raped. 72% of the women reporting being raped, were raped while they were intoxicated. Further findings included:426
Frequently heavy episodic drinkers and illicit drug users were more likely to be raped while intoxicated than non-heavy episodic drinkers and non-drug users.
Being underaged, residing in a sorority house, heavy episodic drinking in high school and using illicit drugs remained significant risk factors predicting sexual assault while intoxicated.
A study of 176 female college students indicated that:427
. Approximately 42% reported experiencing some type of coerced or forced kissing or fondling. 22% reported some type of coerced or forced oral-genital contact, 23% reported vaginal or anal intercourse as a result of continuous arguments or pressure. 6% reported having someone attempt vaginal or anal intercourse by use of threat or some degree of force. 9% reported having anal or vaginal intercourse under those same conditions.
The National College Women Sexual Victimization Study (n=4,432) found that:428
For their sample, the rate of completed and attempted rapes was 35 per every 1,000 female students. The researchers suggest that based on this rate, college campuses having 10,000 female students could theoret-ically have as many as 350 incidents of rape during the academic year.
For women who had been raped or sexually assaulted, 9 of 10 offenders were known to the victim (boyfriend, ex-boyfriend, classmate, friend, acquaintance or co-worker).
426 Mohler-Kuo, M., Dowdall, G., Koss, M. andWechsler, H. (2004). “Correlates of Rape WhileIntoxicated in a National Sample” Journal of Alcohol Studies, Vol. 65, p.37-45.
427 Marx, B. P., Nichols-Anderson, C., Messman-Moore, T., Miranda, R., and Porter, C. (2000). “Alcohol Consumption Outcomes Expectations and Victimization Status Among Female College Students, Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 30, No. 5, 1056-1070.
428 Fisher, S., et al., 2000.
429 Hostile Hallways: The AAUW Survey on Sexual Harassment in America’s Schools. AAUW Educational Foundation, 1993.
430 Kilpatrick, et al., 1992.
431 Koss, M.P., 1998. “Hidden rape: Incident, Prevalence and Descriptive Characteristics of Sexual Aggression and Victimization in a National Sample of College Students.” Rape and Sexual Assault, Vol.
II. (ed.) A.W. Burgess. New York: Garland _Publishing Co.
432 Kilpatrick, et al., 1992.
433 Warshaw, 1994.
434 Boeringer, S.B., 1996. “Influences of Fraternity Membership, Athletics, and Male Living Arrangements on Sexual Aggression.” Violence Against Women: 2, 134-147.
College professors were not identified as committing any rapes or sexual coercions however they were cited as the offender in a low number of cases involving unwanted sexual conduct.
60% of completed rapes occurring on campus took place in the victim’s residence, 31% occurred in other living quarters on campus and 10.3% took place in a fraternity. Off campus victimizations also were more likely to occur in residences. Some respondents also reported that incidences took place in bars, dance clubs and work settings.
4 out of 5 students (81%) had experienced some form of sexual harassment during their school years.429
22% of all rape victims were between the usual college ages of 18 - 24.430
75% of male students and 55% of female students involved in date rape had been drinking or using drugs.431
In a study of college students, 35% of men indicated some likelihood that they would commit a violent rape against a woman who had fended off an advance if they were assured of getting away with it.432
In a study surveying more than 6,000 students at 32 colleges and universities in the U.S.433
1 in 4 women had been victims of rape or attempted rape.
84% of those raped knew their attacker, and 57% of the rapes happened on dates.
Only 27% of the women whose sexual assault met the legal definition of rape thought of themselves as rape victims.
42% of the rape victims told no one about the assault, and only 5% reported it to the police, and
In a study of 477 males, (primarily 1st and 2nd year stu-dents) 55.7% reported one or more instances of non-assaultive coercion to obtain sex. Coercion in this case is defined as threatening to end a relationship unless the vic-tim consents to sex, falsely professing love, telling the vic-tims lies to render her more sexually receptive.434
A survey of 388 female college seniors showed that 79.3% of those sampled who reported having been raped or sexu-ally assaulted while intoxicated placed all or part of the blame on themselves. 50% of the women raped by force or threat of force also took on some degree of self-blame.435
In a longitudinal dating violence study conducted with female freshmen at a North Carolina university, researchers found that the group of women most likely to be physically or sexually assaulted across the four years of college were those with a history of both childhood and adolescent vic-timization. Women who were physically victimized in ado-lescence but not in childhood were the second highest group at risk and were at greater risk for revictimization in their freshman year. Women who were physically assault-ed in any year of college were significantly more likely to be sexually assaulted that same year.436
Epidemiology reports estimate that the number of victims of sexual violence occurring in prisons and other places of incarceration or detention over the past 20 years likely exceeds one million, and is being committed against male and female inmates, and by other inmates or correctional staff. Consequences of prison sexual assault, according to meta-analyses are that victims have a high risk of suicide, contracting HIV and other communicable sexual diseases and experience lifelong psychological and emotional trau
A recent study on sexual assault of female inmates in three Midwestern prisons indicated that, sexual coercion rates in 2 of the 3 women’s prisons ranged between 8%-9%. In the third facility (in which the population was considered rougher than the other two because it housed more serious offenders) the sexual coercion rate was 19%. Female inmates committed nearly half of the incidents of sexual coercion. Incidents ranged from casual sexual grabs to injurious gang rapes. When staff perpetrated the assault, both male & female staff used their authority to bribe, blackmail and force inmates into sexual contact. Most vic-tims were likely to not report the incident and the most cited reasons were: fear of retaliation (especially if staff members were the perpetrator) or fear that they would not be believed.438
Human Rights Watch conducted a study of male inmate on inmate sexual assault occurring in U.S. prisons. Their study participants were representative of prisons in 37 states. A summary of their findings included characteristics
435 Schwartz, M.D., Leggett, M.S., 1999. “Bad Dates or Emotional Trauma?: The Aftermath of Campus Sexual Assault.” Violence Against Women: 5, 251-271.
436 Smith, P.H., White, J.W., Holland, L.J. (2003). “A Longitudinal Perspective on Dating Violence Among Adolescent and College Age Women” American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 93, No. 7, 1104-1109.
437 Mair, J., Frattaroli, S., and Teret, S. (2003). “New Hope for Victims of Prison Sexual Assault”Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics, Vol. 31, No. 4, 602-610.
438 Stuckman-Johnson, C. & Stuckman-Johnson, D. (2002) “Sexual Coercion Reported by Women in Three Midwestern Prisons” The Journal of Sex Research Vol. 39, No. 3, 217-227.
of victims and offenders. Researchers caution that these findings represent only general characteristics and patterns found through their interviews and research and empha-size that any prisoner can become a victim of sexual assault.439
Factors increasing a prisoner’s vulnerability to rape include: youth, small size and physical weakness, being Caucasian, being gay, being a first offender, possessing feminine characteristics (identified as long hair or high voice), being shy, unassertive and/or unaggressive, being convicted of a sexual offense of a minor. Prisoners having any one of these characteris-tics typically faced increased risk of sexual abuse. Prisoners having several overlapping characteristics were much more likely than other inmates to be the target of sexual abuse.
Prison rapists typically had the following characteris-tics: young - under the age of 35 years of age, and typically are at least as young as their victims. Perpetrators tend to be strong, assertive and physically aggressive, more at home in the prison environment than their victims, “street smart”, and often gang mem-bers. They typically have been convicted of more vio-lent crimes than their victims.
Although gay prisoners had a high vulnerability to sex-ual abuse while incarcerated, their research indicated that gay inmates were not likely to be perpetrators.
Human Rights Watch conducted a three year survey of state departments of corrections and the Federal Bureau of Prisons and found that of the 47 departments responding only 23 were able to provide statistics on the number of incidences of reported male inmate on inmate sexual abuse. Research indicated that other respondents reported that such abuse was so infrequent as to not warrant a sep-arate statistical category relating to inmate violence. Contrasted with this finding were data from an internal survey of guards from a southern prison who indicated that an estimated 20% of their inmates were being coerced into inmate-on-inmate sex. Inmates surveyed estimated that 33% of inmates were victimized while higher ranking officials tended to estimate the victimization rate at 13%.440
The U.S. Justice Department reports that since 1992 more than 60 people who worked with female inmates in Arizona have been dismissed, have resigned or have been
439 Human Rights Watch. 2001. No Escape: Male Rape in U.S. Prisons. New York: Human Rights Watch.
disciplined as a result of sexual misconduct.441
Lesbian and Transgendered prisoners are targeted for sexual abuse not only because of their gender, but also their sexual orientation.442
According to a 1994 survey of the Nebraska Department of Corrections System:443
Of 452 male respondents in 3 prisons, 101 or 22% indicated they had been “pressured or forced to have sexual contact against their will.
A third of the targets said they were victimized only once, 38% between 2-5 times. 14% said they were victimized 11 or more times. The average number of victimizations was 9.
42% were victims of gang rape. A single perpetrator was involved in half of the most serious cases. 10% of the incidents involved groups of 6 or more. The numbers of attacks perpetrated by strangers and acquaintances were equally divided.
Prison staff was reported as perpetrators in 18% of the incidents.
The victim was injured in 32% of the cases and a weapon was used in 27% of the cases.
Following U.S. Justice Department investigations of women’s prisons in California from 1997 to 1998, their findings showed that nearly every female inmate inter-viewed reported various sexually aggressive acts by guards. A number of women reported that officers routinely cor-nered women while they were in their cells or on work details and pressed their bodies against them mocking sex-ual intercourse or exposed their genitals while making sex-ually suggestive remarks.444
Abuse by Professionals
An analysis of research on educator sexual misconduct found that the prevalence of U.S. students subjected to sexual misconduct by school staff is in the range of 3.7% and 50.3%, but researchers believe a prevalence rate of 9.6% represents the most accurate data to date. Further research found:445
. Teachers represent 18% of offenders, coaches 15%,
441 U.S. vs. Arizona et al., Civil Action No. 97-746-PHX-ROS, filed November 1998.
442 Human Rights Watch. All Too Familiar: Sexual Abuse of Women in U.S. State Prisons. Human Rights Watch, New York, 1996, 2.
443 Struckman-Johnson, C., 1996. “Sexual Coercion Reported by Men and Women in Prison.” Journal of Sex Research 33(1).
444 U.S. Department of Justice, 1997-1998.
445 Shakeshaft, C. (2004). Educator Sexual Misconduct: A Synthesis of Existing Literature Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.
substitute teachers 13%, bus drivers 12%, teacher’s
aides 11%, other school staff 10%, security guards
10%, principals 6%, counselors indicated
18-28% of the offenders were the same sex as their victim in reported cases and were on average 28 years old.
Several studies estimate that only about 6% of all chil-dren report sexual abuse to an adult or to someone who can do something about it. The other 94% do not tell anyone or talk only to a friend. Most often cited reason for not reporting sexual misconduct was fear they would not be believed. When students do report they almost always report incidents of contact sexual abuse (touch-ing, kissing, hugging or forced intercourse). Verbal abuse is rarely reported to school officials.
Upon review of existing literature, 80-90% of all priests who have sexually abused minors abused adolescent boys. Most sexually abusive priests are considered ephebophiles (having an attraction to post-pubertal minors) whose target population is males between the ages of 15-17 years of age. The vast majority of priests who abuse minors commit their first offense about a year after ordination. Research also indicates that the average age of offending priests is 53.446
Analysis of common characteristics of victim-survivors of clergy sexual abuse found ten basic categories of “risk factors” for abuse which could be considered important for targeting community education prevention efforts: (1) age and gender; (2) current life circumstances (family prob-lems); (3) history of childhood sexual, physical or emotion-al abuse; (4) increased access or availability by working or volunteering at the church; (5) over-idealization of clergy or church and spiritual immaturity (which serves to distort their ability to recognize abusive situations); (6) clinical or per-sonality based disorders; (7) ethnic, racial and cultural influ-ences (which can enhance an uneven power dynamic); (8) chemical abuse or dependency; (9) illness or disability; (10) lack of training or education about clergy sexual abuse.447
In a national random sample of 323 mental health practi-tioners, 60% of men who reported severe childhood sexual abuse and whose symptoms met the criteria for a high degree of psychological distress reported sexual boundary violations with clients.448
The results of a four year study of 225 cases in which stu-dents alleged that they were sexually abused by teachers and other professional staff members showed that:449
446 Plante, T.G. (2002). “A Perspective on Clergy Sexual Abuse” PsychWeb: Psychology of Religion . General Information and Essays. [available at http://psywww.com/psyrelig/plante.html].
447 DeFuentes, N. (1999). “Hear Our Cries: Victim-Survivors of Clergy Sexual Misconduct” in Plante,
T.G. (ed). Bless Me Father for I Have Sinned:
Perspectives on Sexual Abuse Committed By Roman Catholic Priests Westport, CT: Praeger.
448 Jackson, H. & Nuttall, R.L. (2001). “A Relationship Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Professional Sexual Misconduct”. Professional Psychology Research and Practice Vol. 32, No. 2, 200-215.
449 Shakeshaft, C. & Cohan, A. (1995). “Sexual Abuse of Students by School Personnel” Phi Delta Kappan Vol. 76, No. 7, 513-520.b
22% of the students were male, 78% were female. Male students were more likely to be sexually abused in ele-mentary school than in high school. Female students were equally as likely to be abused at all grade levels.
Students who reported same-sex sexual abuse were more likely to be believed by school personnel and to be judged to be harmed more severely than students reporting opposite sex sexual abuse.
The accused perpetrators resigned, left the district or retired in 39% of the cases. 15% were terminated or not rehired, 8% were suspended then resumed teach-ing, 11% received a verbal or written reprimand, and 17% were spoken to formally.
8% of the accusations turned out to be false. 2% were unresolved at the time of the study.
58% of the students received no assistance from the school district. 42% of the students received some counseling. Superintendents reported that the student making the accusation of sexual abuse was often ostracized, especially when the accused teacher was popular. In many cases the student left the district or dropped out of school.
Schools with strong sexual harassment policies, train-ing and education programs for students and staff about the polices and about the nature of sexual harassment as well as the process for making com-plaints, reported fewer incidences of sexual harassment or abuse of students than schools which lack any or all of these risk reducing factors.
In California, there were disciplinary actions against 2,309 doctors, including 57 for sexual abuse of or sexual misconduct with a patient.450
The Office of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) estimates that there are about 50 clergy sexual misconduct cases every year.451
In a study by the Public Citizen’s Health Research Group to analyze the frequency and severity of disciplinary actions taken for sex-related offenses from 1989 to 1994, charac-teristics of physicians were included. Physician specialties (analyzed for MDs only) overrepresented among physicians disciplined for sex-related offenses were psychiatry (27.9% of those disciplined), child psychiatry (2.5%), obstetrics/gynecology (12.6%), and family/general practice (20.3%).452
450 20,125 Questionable Doctors. 2000 Edition. Public Citizen Health Research Group.
451 Smith, Alexa. “When Mentor Becomes Molester,” Presbyterians Today Online, October 2000.
452 Physicians Disciplined for Sex-Related Offenses. Public Citizen Health Research Group. 1997.
453 Seats, Jeff. The Journal of Pastoral Care, Winter 1993.
454 Physicians Disciplined for Sex-Related Offenses, 1996. Public Citizen Health Research Group.
455 Berry, Jason, 1992. Lead Us Not Into Temptation: Catholic Priests and the Sexual Abuse of Children.
456 Shakeshaft, Carol, October 1994. Responding to Complaints of Sexual Abuse: New Study Examines How School Districts are Handling Allegations. The School Administrator. Web edition, American Association of School Administrators.
14.1% of ministers surveyed admitted to engagement in sexual behavior that was judged to be inappropriate for a minister.453
According to a report published in August of 1996 by the Public Citizen Health Research Group, the number of all doctors disciplined for sexual misconduct doubled from 1990 to 1994. Of the total disciplinary actions taken against doctors, 5.1% were for sexual abuse of patients or other sexual misconduct.454
Jason Berry’s book, Lead Us Not Into Temptation: Catholic Priests and the Sexual Abuse of Children, investigates child molestation in the North American clergy and the impact of those behaviors on the larger community of believers. Mr. Berry tells his readers that estimating church losses involves guesswork, but the figures he found are conserva-tive by all standards. His findings include:455
Between 1983 and 1987, more than 200 priests or reli-gious brothers were reported to the Vatican Embassy for sexually abusing youngsters, in most cases teenage boys, an average of nearly one accusation a week in those four years alone.
In the decade of 1982 to 1992, approximately 400 priests were reported to church or civil authorities for molesting youths. The vast majority of these men had multiple victims.
By 1992, the church’s financial losses . in victims’ settlements, legal expenses, and medical treatment of clergy - had reached an estimated $400 million.
In a four-year study that was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Education, researchers studied 225 cases between 1990 and 1994 where students or their parents filed complaints of sexual harassment and sexual abuse of students by staff. Behaviors that superintendents call sexual harass-ment or abuse fall into two categories: contact sexual abuse and non-contact sexual abuse. Nearly 90% of the cases stud-ied were contact sexual abuse and harassment cases and included sexual touching, fondling, and intercourse. Of stu-dents who allege being abused by a staff member, 22 percent are males and 78 percent females. Males are more likely to be sexually abused in elementary school than in high school. Females are equally likely to be sexually abused in elementary and high school.456
Sexual Assault/Harassment in the Military
A recent Pentagon task force report found that:457
In 2002 and 2003 there were 1,913 cases of sexual assault reported to the criminal investigations of the branches of the armed services, with 2,012 identified service members as victims.
118 of these sexual assault cases occurred in an active combat zone.
85% of the assaults were committed by a service mem-ber and 99% of the service member offenders were male.
Service member victims between the ages of 17-24 were Navy . 85%, Army . 83% and Air Force . 85%
Service member offenders between the ages of 17-24 were Navy . 66%, Army . 40%, Air Force . 68%
50% of the cases involved the use of alcohol.
According to a recent Department of Defense report to Congress, 51% of the reported cases of sexual harassment between 1998 and 1999 were substantiated.458
A study of patients in a psychiatric out-patient clinic serv-ing a population of Navy and Marine Corps men in the United States indicated that sexual assault appeared to be more common in this military setting than in any other non-institutional settings.459
Survey data from the Defense Manpower Data Center’s survey of 20,400 military personnel in 1988 indicate that how the soldiers’ commanding officer (CO) viewed sexual harassment affected levels of sexual harassment for female soldiers: 71% of women reported harassment in locations where the CO encouraged sexual harassment; 65% report-ed being harassed serving under COs who were indifferent or neutral; and 58% did so under COs who discouraged sexual harassment.460
90% of women under 50 who have served in the U.S. mili-tary and who responded to a survey report being victims of sexual harassment, and nearly one-third of respondents said they have been raped.461
A study of 160 female U.S. military personnel showed that 7.3% experienced sexual assault, 33.1% experienced physical sexual harassment (of these, 7.3% also experi-enced assault), 66.2% experienced verbal sexual harass-ment, and 30.2% experienced no sexual harassment.462
457 U.S. Department of Defense. (April, 2004). Care for Victims of Sexual Assault Task Force Report Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Defense.
458 Office of the Secretary of Defense (2001) Report of the Secretary of Defense to the President and the Congress. Washington, D. C.; U. S. Department of Defense.
459 Goyer, P. & Eddleman, H., 1984. “Same-sex Rape of Non incarcerated men.” American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 576-579.
460 Pryor, J. B., LaVite, C., & Stoller, L., 1993. “A Social Psychological Analysis of Sexual Harassment: The Person/Situation Interaction.” Journal of Vocational Behavior (Special Issue), 42, 68-83.
461 Maureen Murdoch, Kristin Nichol, MinneapolisVeterans Affairs Medical Center Archives of Family Medicine. American Medical Association, February 2000.
462 Wolfe, Jessica et al., 1998. “Sexual Harassmentand Assault as Predictors of PTSD SymptomatologyAmong U.S. Female Persian Gulf War MilitaryPersonnel.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 13(1):
463 Panel to Review Sexual Misconduct Allegations at the U.S. Air Force Academy. (September 2003). Report of the Panel to Review Sexual Misconduct Allegations at the U.S. Air Force Academy. Arlington, VA.
464 Campbell, J.C., Garza, M.A., Gielen, A.C. et al. (2003). “Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse Among Active Duty Military Women.” Violence Against Women Vol. 9, No. 6, 1072-1092.
465 Zweig, J.M., Sayer, A., Crockett, L.J., & Vicary,
J.R. (2002). “Adolescent Risk Factors for Sexual Victimization: A Longitudinal Analysis of Rural
Women”. Journal of Adolescent Research. Vol. 17, No. 6, 586-603.
According to data gathered in a recent Inspector General survey of the 579 female members of the 2003-2006 cadet class at the United States Air Force Academy:463
7.4% of respondents indicated that they had been the victim of at least one rape or attempted rape and 19% had been the victim of one instance of sexual assault. during their time at the Academy.
Only 19% of the sexual assault incidences had been reported to authorities. Reasons given by respondents for not reporting their assault to authorities were: embarrassment, fear of reprisals, fear of ostracism, or belief that nothing would be done.
In a recent sample of active duty military women, 22% of the women surveyed reported physical and/or sexual assault by intimate partners and 36% reported some type of abuse (including emotional) by intimate partners during their military service. Of those reporting some type of abuse by an intimate partner, 19% were abused by a civil-ian, 43% were abused by an active duty service member and 38% had been abused by a retired member of the mili-tary. Enlisted personnel represented 63% and officers rep-resented 37% of the abusers. Data also indicated that stronger risk factors for abuse were children (having 3 or more children presented the strongest risk) and rank (enlisted women reported higher rates of abuse). Researchers did note that the lack of confidentiality in the military abuse reporting procedures may serve to discour-age higher ranked women from reporting their abuse out of fear that it may adversely affect their military careers.464
In a study of 237 young adult rural women (grades 7-9), researchers found that 30% of the young women had reported sexual victimization. Of this sub-sample, 73% of the young women reported coerced sexual experiences (substance-related, psychologically manipulated etc.), 27% reported forced sexual experiences (physical violence, threats of violence by perpetrators). Researchers also noted that the young women with less educated mothers had an increased likelihood of reporting forced sex. Young women who had mothers with a higher level of education had a decreased likelihood of reporting forced sex. The probabili-ty of coerced sex increased nearly 50% as the frequency of sexual activity increased.465
According to 2001 Uniform Crime Report data, forcible rape in rural areas decreased 2.7% from 2000. However, in areas in which the population is under 10,000 persons, forcible rape increased 3.9% from 2000.466
An analysis of rural crime data taken over a ten year peri-od (1987-1996) showed that while urban rates of forcible rape had gone down 28.6%, rates of forcible rape had increased 11.8% in rural areas of California.467
According to analysis of the National Crime Victimization Survey results, while urban and suburban residents experi-enced drops in violent victimization rates (rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated and simple assault) from 1999 to 2000, the rate of violent crime in rural areas did not change measurably for that same time period.468
During 2000, the National Crime Victimization Survey found that for rape and sexual assault, urban residents had higher rates than suburban residents, and rural residents had slightly higher rates than suburban residents.469
The Bureau of Justice Statistics found that between 1993 and 1998, violent crimes (rape and sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault) committed in rural areas were less likely to involve the use of a firearm (8%) than violent crimes committed in suburban (9%) or rural areas (12%).470
According to the National Crime Victimization survey, although urban residents experienced overall violent crime (rape and sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault) at a higher rate than suburban or rural res-idents during 1998, rape and sexual assault rates were similar for all areas during 1998.471
Between 1993 and 1998, rural residents of other racial and ethnic backgrounds were twice as likely to be victims of violent crime (rape and sexual assault, robbery, simple and aggravated assault) than black or white rural residents (68 victimizations compared to 31 and 34 per 1,000 persons, respectively).472
Rural county law enforcement agencies cleared 49.8% of their reported forcible rapes, compared to 47% of subur-ban counties. Cities with fewer than 10,000 residents showed a clearance rate of 46.2% of their reported forcible rapes, compared to 43.4% clearance rate for the nation’s largest cities (population of 250,000 and over) was 44%, cities with populations between 25,000 and 49,999 showed a clearance rate of 40.4%.473
466 Federal Bureau of Investigation (2001) Uniform Crime Reports, January-December 2000. Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Justice.
467 Nance, L. Collins, B. Crime in Urban and Rural California. Sacramento, CA: Criminal Justice Statistics Center, California Office of the Attorney General.
468 Rennison, Callie Marie. Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1997. Special Report: Age Patterns of Victims of Serious Violent Crime. Washington D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
470 Duhart, Detis. Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000. Special Report, National Crime Victimization Survey: Urban, Suburban, and Rural Victimization, 1993-98. Washington D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice: 1.
473 Federal Bureau of Investigations (2003) Crime in the United States 2002: p.30.
According to figures from the Uniform Crime Report, rural counties experienced a 5.6% increase in forcible rapes in 2002. Cities with populations under 10,000 saw a 7.1% increase in reported forcible rapes. Cities outside of metropolitan areas saw an increase of 7.5%.474
Violence and the Homeless
Researchers surveying a sample of 372 homeless youth (rang-ing in age from 13 to 21 years old) in Seattle found that:475
23% of females surveyed had experienced sexual victim-ization on at least once occasion since being on the street. The perpetrators were most often male and either acquaintances (41%), strangers (34%) or friends (23%).
As females aged, their odds of being sexually victim-ized by a stranger increased 72%. Females who report-ed higher rates of hard drug use were also more likely to have been victimized by a stranger. Females who trade sex were nearly five times more likely to have been sexually victimized by a known assailant.
11% of males reported being sexually victimized on at least one occasion since being on the street. The per-petrators were most often male strangers. Gay and bisexual males were more likely to be victimized by acquaintances or friends. stance abuse, greater mental health symptomology and current risky sexual activity.
474 Federal Bureau of Investigations (2003). Uniform Crime Reports. Washington, D.C.
475 Tyler, K., Whitbeck, L., Hoyt, D., & Cauce, A. (2004) “Risk Factors for Sexual Victimization Among Male and Female Homeless Runaway Youth” Journal
of Interpersonal Violence Vol. 19, No. 3, 503-520.
A survey to examine the patterns of physical abuse before, during and after pregnancy conducted with 2,648 women participating in the North Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System found that:478
6.9% of the women reported being abused during their pregnancy and 3.2% were abused post-partum.
77% of those abused post-delivery were injured in some way. Although 75% of the women had multiple types of injuries, only 23% received medical care.
Virtually all of the women abused took advantage of the well-baby program, and the presence of maternal physical abuse did not negatively impact the abused mother’s participation in the program, a factor that researchers noted would make these visits a prime place for screening for physical violence.
Analyzing previous survey data for trends, researchers note that:479
Younger victims of intimate partner violence were less likely to report the violence to the police.
Women separated from their husbands were victimized at a higher rate than married, divorced, widowed or never-married women.
In an analysis of data from Supplementary Homicide Reports collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) over an 18 year period, there were 13,670 cases in which a woman was killed by her spouse. Women between the ages of 20-24 years old were 1.5 times as likely to be murdered by their spouse than any other age group.480
Physical violence in intimate relationships almost always is accompanied by psychological abuse, and in one-third to over half of cases, by sexual abuse.481
The National Violence Against Women Survey found that most physical assaults perpetrated against women by intimate partners consist of pushing, grabbing, shoving,
478 Martin, S.L., Mackie, L., Kupper, L.L., Buescher, P.A., & Moracco, K.E., “Physical Abuse of Women Before, During and After Pregnancy” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association Vol. 285, No. 12, 1581-1584.
479 World Health Organization. (2002) World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
480 Shackelford, T.K., Buss, D.M., Peters, J., 2000. “Wife Killing: Risk to Women as a Function of Age,” Violence and Victims, 15(3), 273-282.
481 Population Reports: Ending Violence Against Women, 2000.
slapping, and hitting.482
Women are significantly more likely than men to report being victims of intimate partner violence whether it is rape, physical assault, or stalking and whether the time-frame is the person’s lifetime or the previous 12 months.483
Violence perpetrated against women by intimates is often accompanied by emotionally abusive and controlling behavior. The survey found that women whose partners were jealous, controlling, or verbally abusive were signifi-cantly more likely to report being raped, physically assaulted, and/or stalked by their partners, even when other sociodemographic and relationship characteristics were controlled.484
Of the estimated 4.8 million intimate partner rapes and physical assaults perpetrated against women annually, approximately 2 million will result in an injury to the victim, and 552,192 will result in some type of medical treatment to the victim.485
Battered women seeking shelter were surveyed at intake about their experiences with pet abuse and the roles of pets in their abusive relationships. Of the women with pets, 46.5% reported that their batterers had threatened to harm or actually harmed their pets.486
About 85% of victimizations by intimate partners in 1998 were against women. Women were victims of intimate partner violence at a rate about 5 times that of males.487
Most victims injured by an intimate partner did not report seeking professional medical treatment for their injuries. About 6 in 10 female and male victims of intimate partner violence were injured but not treated.488
According to data about intimate partner violence between 1993-1998, the highest rates of victimization were among women who were African American, young, divorced or separated, earning lower incomes, living in rental housing, and living in an urban area.489
In a 1999 survey of 607 individuals, 47% of Cambodian persons, 44% of South Asian persons, 39% of Vietnamese persons, 32% of Korean persons, and 24% of Chinese persons knew a woman who had been physically abused or injured by her partner.490
In 1998, there were 1,932 females murdered by males in single victim/single offender incidents that were submitted to the FBI for its Supplementary Homicide Report.491
482 Tjaden and Thoennes, November 1998.
483 Tjaden, Patricia and Thoennes, Nancy, July 2000. “Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence:” Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey, Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
484 Tjaden and Thoennes, July 2000.
486 Flynn, Clifton. “Woman’s Best Friend: Pet Abuse and the Role of Companion Animals in the Lives of Battered women,” Violence Against Women, Volume
6, Number 2, February 2000: 162-177.
487 Rennison, C. and Welchans, S., May 2000.
Intimate Partner Violence, Washington, D.C: Bureau
of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S.
Department of Justice.
490 Yoshioka, M. “Asian Family Violence Report: A Study of the Cambodian, Chinese, Korean, South Asian and Vietnamese Communities in Massachusetts.” Asian Task Force Against Domestic Violence, Inc. Boston, MA. November 2000.
491 FBI Supplemental Homicide Report, 1998.
More than 12 times as many females were murdered by a male acquaintance than were killed by a male stranger.
60% of female homicide victims were wives or intimate acquaintances of their killers.
More female homicides were committed with firearms (54%) than with all other weapons combined. Of the homicides committed with firearms, 77% were committed with handguns.
A study of femicide cases in which the victim was killed by an abusive partner indicated that the highest risk factors for intimate partner lethal violence were associated with the perpetrator’s access to firearms and being unemployed. Risk was also higher when the abuser was highly control-ling and when the woman separated from an abusive intimate partner or left the abuser for another partner.492
Teen Dating Violence
According to a study of 6,864 female students (9th through 12th grade) researchers found that:493
Slightly less than 1 out of 5 sexually experienced ado-lescent females reported being intentionally hurt by a dating partner in the previous year.
1 out of 25 sexually inexperienced adolescent females reported being intentionally hurt by a dating partner in the previous year.
Girls who reported dating violence in the previous year were twice as likely as their female peers to report hav-ing multiple sexual partners.
Girls who had experienced dating violence were less likely to use condoms and were at greater risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases.
Girls who had experienced dating violence were signifi-cantly more likely to use alcohol or drugs before inter-course.
Witnessing violence between parents was a significant predictor of physical dating violence for a group of college males involved in a recent survey.494
A recent study of the effects of teen dating violence on 9th through 12th grade females found:495
492 Campbell, J.C., Webster, D., Koziol-McClain, J. et al. (2003). “Risk Factors for Femicide in Abusive Relationships: Results from a Multisite Case Control Study.” American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 93, No.7, 1089-1097.
493 Silverman, JG., Raj, A, and Clements, K. (2004)
“Dating Violence and Associated Sexual Risk andPregnancy Among Adolescent Girls in theUnited States”. Pediatrics, Vol. 114, No. 2, p.220-
494 Carr, J.L., & VanDeusen, K.M. (2002). “The Relationship Between Family of Origin Violence and Dating Violence in College Men” Journal of Interpersonal Violence Vol. 17, No. 6, 630-646.
495 Silverman, J.G., Raj, A., Mucci, L.A., & Hathaway, J.E. (2001) “Dating Violence Against Adolescent Girls and Associated Substance Abuse, Unhealthy Weight Control, Sexual Risk Behavior, Pregnancy and Suicidality” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 286, No. 5
1 in 5 experienced physical or sexual dating violence.
Females with a history of physical and sexual dating violence were significantly more likely to engage in substance abuse (i.e. binge drinking, cocaine use and heavy smoking) and in unhealthy weight control behaviors including the use of laxatives and diet pills.
Researchers also noted a correlation between risky sexual behavior (i.e. multiple partners, sexual inter-course before the age of 15) and dating violence victimization.
Girls experiencing physical and sexual dating violence were 4-6 times more likely to become pregnant than non-abused peers. They were 8-9 times more likely to have attempted suicide in the previous year than non-abused peers.
In a national survey of teens and their parents, 25% of the teens surveyed reported that they knew at least 1 person who had been physically struck by a person they were dat-ing. Only 8% of parents responded that they knew of at least 1 student who had experienced such abuse.496
In a recent study of 81,247 9th-12th grade boys and girls in Minnesota public schools, findings indicated that:497
1 out of every 10 girls and 1 out of every 20 boys reported experienced violence and/or rape while on a date.
9% of girls and 6% of boys had already experienced some sort of dating violence before they reached 9th grade.
Between 12% and 35% of teenagers have experienced some form of violence . from pushing and shoving to hitting - in a dating relationship.498
The prevalence of teen dating violence is estimated to range from 9%-60% including verbal, physical, and sexual violence. Female teens cause more minor injuries than male teens, but are also likely to receive more significant physical injuries and more likely to be sexually victim-ized.499
In a recent study of 635 U.S. Midwestern high school stu-dents, only 3% of those physically or sexual abused by a partner reported the abuse to an authority figure (police, counselor or teacher etc.); only 6% told a family member. 61% of the respondents indicated that they told a friend
496 Social Control, Verbal Abuse, and Violence Among Teenagers. December 2000. Washington, D.C.: The Empower Program. December 2000.
497 Ackard, D.M., Neumark-Sztainer, D. (August 26, 2001). “Date Violence and Date Rape Among Adolescents: Associations with Disordered Eating Behaviors and Psychological Health.” A research paper presented at the 109th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. San Francisco, CA.
498 Simon, T., and Golden, B. Dating: Peer Education for Reducing Sexual Harassment and Violence Among Secondary Students, 1997.
499 Cohall, Alwyn; Cohall, Rene; Bannister, Hope; Northridge, Mary, 1999. “A Love Shouldn’t Hurt: Strategies for Health Care Providers to Address Adolescent Dating Violence.” Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association, 54 (3), Summer 1999.
and 30% indicated that they told no one at all. Survey results also indicated that nearly 42% of both male and female students indicated that an abusive incident occurred on school grounds and that over 40% of the incidents took place when other people were present.500
A study of nearly 2,000 8th and 9th grade students revealed that 35.5% of dating adolescents reported being a victim of at least one nonsexual dating violence act. This study also reported that 10.7% of these students had been a victim of at least one sexual dating violence act.501
A study of 7,000 high school students nationally revealed that 10% of the women indicated that they had been pushed by a romantic partner within the last 18 months prior to the study; 3% reported having had something thrown at them by a partner over that same period.502
According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the only federal agency mandated to conduct research to prevent injuries and illnesses in the workplace:503
Homicide is the leading cause of injury death for women in the workplace, accounting for 40% of all workplace death among female workers.
Female workers were the victims in nearly two-thirds of the injuries resulting from workplace assaults. Most of these assaults (70%) were directed at women employed in service occupations, such as health care, while an additional 20% of these incidents occurred in retail locations, such as restaurants and grocery stores.
77.3% of all victims of violent crime in the workplace had no physical resistance to the attack. (“No resistance” was defined in this study as either no resistance at all, non-confrontational tactics, or some form of unarmed con-frontation.) 2.7% of those responding indicated that they threatened or attacked their offender.504
The most common type of a workplace violent crime was simple assault with an average of 1.5 million incidents a year. There were 396,000 aggravated assaults, 51,000 rapes and sexual assaults, 84,000 robberies, and 1,000 homicides.505
The National Crime Victimization Survey of 1994 indicates
500 Molidor, C, Tolman, R., Kober, J., 2000. “Gender and contextual factors in adolescent dating violence.” The Prevention Researcher, 7(1).
501 Foshee, Vangie, et al., 1996. “The Safe Dates Project: Theoretical Basis, Evaluation Design, and Selected Baseline Findings.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 12(5): 39-47.
502 Halpern, C.T., Oslak, S.G., Young, M.L. et al. (2001). “Partner Violence Among Adolescents in Opposite-Sex Romantic Relationships: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.” American Journal of Public Health. Vol, 91, 1679-1685,
503 “Women’s Safety and Health Issues at Work”,National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/women/
504 Duhart, D.T., 2001. Violence in the Workplace,
1993-99. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of JusticeStatistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
505 Worchol, G. (1998) “Workplace Violence 1992-1996: A National Crime Victimization Special Report.”, Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
that of the 432,750 rapes/sexual assaults reported by the survey respondents, 16,877 (3.9%) occurred while working or on duty.506
According to the latest annual crime survey, nearly 1 million individuals become victims of violent crime in
U.S. workplaces each year.507
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has found that an average of 20 workers are murdered each week in the United States. In addition, an estimated 1 million workers . 18,000 per week . are victims of nonfatal workplace assaults each year.508
Nonfatal workplace assaults result in more than 86,000 lost workdays and $16 million in lost wages.509
About 40% of victims of nonfatal violence in the workplace reported that they knew their offenders. Women were more likely than men to be victimized by someone they knew.510
Twelve percent of all victims of workplace violence report-ed having been physically injured. Victims of rape or sexual assault suffered additional injury in 19% of the reported victimizations.511
Fewer than half of all nonfatal violent workplace crimes were reported to the police. Male victims (47%) were more likely than female victims (38%) to report the offense to the police. About 25% of the rapes and sexual assaults were reported to the police while nearly 73% of the rob-beries were reported.512
In a survey called Attitudes in the American Workplace VI, between June 2 and June 25, 2000, 754 American workers disclosed the following:513
10% (13 million workers) say they are concerned about the behavior of an individual they think could become violent.
5% (6.5 million workers) say they have felt that anoth-er employee threatened their own personal security in the last year.
When asked whether they had been angered by a co-worker to the point where they felt like striking him or her in the last year but did not, 14% (18.3 million workers) said yes.
9% reported that in the past year they have been aware of an assault or violent act in their workplace. Those who work for large companies (more than 1,000
506 National Crime Victimization Survey, 1994.
507 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1999. “Criminal Victimization in the United States,” National Crime Victimization Survey. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
508 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Violence in the Workplace, June 1997
510 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1998. “Workplace Violence,” 1992-1996. National Crime Victimization Survey. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
513 Attitudes in the American Workplace VI, 2000. Polling for the Marlin Company by the Gallup Organization.
employees) were most likely to report such violent acts.
18% said they were aware of a threat or verbal intimi-dation in their workplace in the last year.
Overall, 42% of respondents said they think people in their workplace need help in managing anger or stress.
The percentage of students who reported that they had been bullied (picked on or made to do things they did not want to do) at school increased from 5% in 1999 to 8 per-cent in 2001. In 2001, grade level was inversely related to student’s likelihood of being bullied; as grade level increased, students’ likelihood of being bullied decreased.514
In a review of school crime data trends, in the years sur-veyed, the likelihood of being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property was:515
More likely to be reported by males than females. For example, in 2001, 12% of male students reported being threatened or injured in the past year, compared with 7% of female students.
Those in lower grades were more likely to be injured or threatened with a weapon on school property than those in higher grades.
In 2001, Pacific Islander students were more likely than Black, Hispanic, or White students to be injured or threatened.
The total number of hate crime offenses (motivated by gender, religious, race or sexual orientation bias) occurring at a school or college in 2001 increased 17.4% over the average number of offenses between 1995-2000.516
In a recent survey of nearly 16,000 students grades 6th through 10th:517
30% reported moderate to frequent involvement in bullying either as a bully (13%) or as someone being bullied (11%) or both (6%).
Teenage males were more likely than females to be both perpetrators and targets of bullying.
As teens grow older they are less likely to bully or be targets of bullying.
514 DeVoe, J. F., Peter, K., Kaufman, P. et al. 2003. Indicators of School Crime and Safety:
Washington, D. C. : U.S. Departments of Justice and Education, 2003.
516 Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
517 Salmivalli, C. (2001). “Group View on Victimization: Empirical Findings and their Implications” In J. Juvonen and S. Graham, eds. Peer Harassment in School: The Plight of the Vulnerable and Victimized. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
. Bullies have little difficulty making friends and their friends tend to have similar pro-violence attitudes and engage in similar problem behaviors.
Teens who witness bullying frequently report feeling guilty for not stopping the bullying or reporting it to a school official. They report higher levels of guilt if they are drawn into participating in the bullying through peer pressure.518
Bullies tend to have high self-esteem and confidence.519 Bullies also typically are physically bigger and stronger than their targets and are more physically aggressive, have pro-violence views, are more hot-tempered, and are easily angered and impulsive. They also demonstrate a strong need to dominate others and have a low level of empathy for their targets.520
Some teens report they deal with their feelings of guilt by blaming the victim or deciding that the victim deserved the abuse.521
Alfred University’s report Lethal Violence in Schools sam-pled 2,017 7th-12th grade students across the country and found that:522
37% of the students said there were kids at their school they thought might shoot someone. 20% had heard rumors that another student planned to shoot someone. 20% had also overheard another student actually talking about shooting someone at school. 8% of those responding said they had thought about shooting someone at school.
One half of those surveyed would tell an adult if they overheard someone at the school talking about shoot-ing someone.
Students in rural and urban schools were more likely than students in suburban schools to identify their school as unsafe.
The Nickelodeon television network, the Kaiser Family Foundation and Children Now teamed up for the Talking with Kids program which interviewed kids (ages 8-15) and their parents on a variety of subjects:523
55% of the kids ages 8-11 and 68% of the kids over the age of 11 identified teasing and bullying as “big problems for kids their age,” more than any other issue mentioned in the survey.
74% of the kids ages 8-11 and 86% of kids over the
518 Olweus, D., 1993.519 Nansel, T.R., et al., 2001. 520 Olweus, D., 1993.521 Nansel, T.R., et al., 2001.522 Gaughan, E., Cerio, L., Myers, R., 2001, Lethal
Violence in Schools: A National Survey Final Report.
Alfred, NY: Alfred University.
523 Talking with Kids About Tough Issues NationalSurvey. 2001. Broadway, NY: Nickelodeon, KaiserFamily Foundation and Children Now.
age of 11 indicated that threats of violence, teasing and bullying are common place at their school.
The Empower Program’s 2001 national survey of teens and their parents revealed that:524
Over 60% of the teens ages 14-17 reported that there is a group of students at their school that sometimes or frequently intimidates others, often with few conse-quences.
A third of the respondents planned ways to get back at their intimidators but most victims indicated that they responded by isolating themselves.
Less than one third of the victims reported their victim-ization to someone at the school.
16% of the students surveyed said that other students interceded when a fellow student is being intimidated or harassed. The most common reason given for not interceding was that they “don’t know what to do.”
The U.S. Secret Service’s National Threat Assessment Center recently studied 37 school shooting incidents in which the attackers were current or recent students at the school and where the attacker chose the school for a particular purpose and not out of opportunity. The results of their study found that:525
In over 60% of the cases, the attacker felt persecuted, bullied, threatened, attacked or injured by others at the school prior to their attacks. Most reported that the bullying and harassment was longstanding or severe.
In over three quarters of the cases, the attacker had experienced some difficulty coping with a major change in a significant relationship or loss of personal status (i.e. a personal failure).
In over three quarters of the cases, the attackers told someone before the attack about their interest in mounting an attack at the school. In most of the cases the person they told was a peer (friend, schoolmate, sibling etc.)
In 1999 about 5% of students ages 12-18 reported being bullied in school within the last six months. Students in lower grades were more likely to be bullied than those in upper grades (picked on, made to do things they didn’t want to do.)526
524 Social Control, Verbal Abuse and Violence Among Teenagers. December 2000. Washington, D.C.: The Empower Program.
525 U.S. Secret Service, 2000. Safe School Initiative: an Interim Report on the Prevention of Targeted Violence in Schools. Washington, D.C.:
U.S. Secret Service, U.S. Department of the Treasury.
526 Kaufman, P., Chen, X., Choy, S., et al. 2000. Indicators of School Crime and Safety 2000 Annual Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Departments of Justice and Education.
13% of students ages 12-18 reported being called deroga-tory names having to do with ethnic, race, gender, religion, disability or sexual orientation. 36% of students saw hate-related graffiti at school.527
In 1999, 1.1 million students reported avoiding one or more places at school for fear of their own safety.528
One in twelve high schoolers is threatened or injured with a weapon each year.529
An analysis of school shooting incidences since 1995 indicate that a pattern of three risk factors escalates to violence:530
Access to guns and/or fascination with explosives making their acting on aggressive impulses easier.
Fascination with themes of death, Satanic or other dark lifestyles.
527 Kaufman et al., (2000).
529 Office of Juvenile and Delinquency Prevention,
1999. Report to Congress on Juvenile Violence and Research.
530 Leary, M.R., Kowalski, R.M., Smith, L. and Phillips, S. (2003) “Teasing, Rejection and Violence: Case Studies of the School Shootings” Aggressive Behavior. Vol. 29, 202-214
In a study of 271 women participating in a battered women’s program, it was found that for women who’s abusers use pornography, the odds of being sexually abused are almost twice as likely.531
In a study of 1,209 youth between the ages of 15-24 con-ducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation it was found that:532
Two out of three (65%) teens say being exposed to online pornography could have a serious impact on those under 18.
59% of teens think seeing pornography on the Internet encourages young people to have sex before they are ready.
Among the 95% of the 15-17 year-olds who have gone online 70% have accidentally stumbled across pornog-raphy, 23% “very” or “somewhat” often.
A majority (55%) of those exposed to pornography on the internet reported that they were “not too” or “not at all” upset by it, while 45% said they were “very” or “somewhat” upset.
According to a 2002 report from the National Research Council Report on pornography and the Internet:533
It is estimated that the adult online industry in the United States generates 1 billion dollars annually with this figure expected to grow to 5 to 7 billion dollars in the next 5 years.
Subscription sites with adult content exceed 100,000 in the United States and approximately 400,000 for-pay sites globally.
Approximately 70 million individuals per week view at least one adult website globally.
Estimates indicate that as much as 20% of all pornogra-phic images on the Internet involve children.534
A study that provided a content analysis of 31 Internet
531 Shope, J. (2004) “When Words are Not Enough:The Search for the Effect of Pornography on AbusedWomen”. Violence Against Women.
Vol. 10, No. 1: 56-72.
532 Rideout, V. (2001) Generation Rx.com: How Young People Use the Internet for Health Information,
Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
533 Thornburgh, D, Lin, HS, Lin, H. (2002) Youth, Pornography and the Internet. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
534 Mehta, M.D. & Plaza, D.E. (1997) Content Analysis of Pornographic Images Available on the Internet, The Information Society 13 153-62.
535 Gossett, J.L, and Byrne, S., 2002.
536 Bennett, Ralph, W., “The Relationship Between Pornography and Extra-familial Child Sexual Abuse.” The Police Chief, Feb. 1991.
537 Russell, D. Dangerous Relationships: Pornography, Misogyny and Rape. 1998: 127-128.
538 Corne, Shawn; Briere, John; Esses, Lillian, “Women’s Attitudes and Fantasies About Rape as a Function of Early Exposure to Pornography,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 7 (4): 457.
539 Cramer, E; McFarlane, J.; Parker, B.; Soeken, K.; Silva, C. and Reel, S. “Violent Pornography and Abuse of Women: Theory to Practice.” Violence and Victims, 13 (4): 319.
websites that advertised pornography that centered around depicting rape or torture of women indicated that; 535
52 % of the sites advertised or depicted young girls
65% of the sites used images that depicted the female victim being tied with a rope, a few of the sites used text indicated that the woman had been drugged. Other weapons found in the images included gags, handcuffs, chains, guns, knives, bats, whips and cages.
12% of the sites used advertising that claimed the video images were taken of an actual rape filmed by the perpetrators. Most other sites either made no claim or indicated that the people in the images were actors.
Los Angeles Police Department’s Sexually Exploited Child Unit found pornographic evidence in over half of all non-familial child sexual abuse cases, and concluded that “The study merely confirms what detectives have long known: that pornography is a strong factor in the sexual victimization of children.”536
Pornography seems to have a much greater effect on children; one study found that 31% of male high school students reported trying to enact the behaviors depicted, and 72% of junior high school male students wanted to imitate the sexual behavior depicted in their initial expo-sure to X-rated materials. One survey of 600 people from junior high school age to 39 year olds found that all high school males had looked at a Playboy or similar magazine (male student averaged having seen 16.1 issues), and 84% of high school students (male and female) had seen X-rated films, a higher percentage than the adults.537
46% of the 187 women surveyed in a 1992 study reported direct exposure to pornography as a child. Researchers also found that this exposure was significantly related to subsequent adult rape fantasies and victim-blaming beliefs such as, “Many women have an unconscious wish to be raped” and “In the majority of rapes, the victim is promis-cuous or has a bad reputation.”538
In a 1998 study 198 victims of intimate partner violence were surveyed about their partner’s use of pornography. 40.9% said that their partners used pornography and of those, the index of violent behavior was significantly higher when the victim’s partner forced her to look at, act out or pose for pornographic scenes.539
5% of online teens and 25% of older teen boys online indi-cated that they have lied about their age in order to access a website- typically to gain access to pornographic sites.540
A recent study of 102 rape survivors in a major metropoli-tan area found that 24% of the survivors indicated that they had engaged in post-assault prostitution. Seventy-five percent of these survivors attributed their decision to engage in prostitution to their sexual assault. The most commonly cited reason they gave for engaging in prostitu-tion was that prostitution allowed them to regain control of their lives and bodies.541
According to research by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention:542
Juvenile prostitution as encountered by the police is more likely to involve multiple offenders
68% of prostitution incidents involving juvenile offend-ers took place at an outside location (such as a high-way, road, alley, field, woods, or parking lot). This was still less frequent than for adult offenders. Incidents involving juvenile victims and adult offenders were considerably more likely to occur at homes and resi-dences.
Juvenile prostitution offenders known to police were more often male (61%) than female (39%), a greater disproportion than among adult prostitution offenders (53% male and 47% female).
Police are less likely to arrest juvenile prostitutes than adult prostitutes but were more likely to arrest male juvenile prostitutes than female juvenile prostitutes.
Female juvenile prostitutes were more likely to be
referred to social service agencies than male juvenile prostitutes.
72% of the female prostitutes in a recent study related instances of severe abuse (rape, being beaten with objects, threatened with weapons, abandonment in remote areas) at the hands of their partners, clients and/or pimps. Respondents reported that they rarely reported such abuse to law enforcement. Respondents indicated that they took some sort of protective measure to protect themselves from danger: relying on intuition, refusing to travel more than a
540 Lenhart et al. 2001.
541 Campbell, R, Courtney E., Sefl, T. (2003) “The Relationship Between Adult Sexual Assault and Prostitution: An Exploratory Analysis” Violence and Victims, Vol. 18 No. 3., 299-317.
542 Flores, J. Robert. “Prostitution of Juveniles: Patterns From NIBRS”, Juvenile Justice Bulletin,Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, June 2004.
few blocks with a client, making exchanges in well lighted areas.543
Men and women who have been raped or forced to have sex in either childhood or adolescence were four times more likely to have worked in prostitution compared with people who have not been abused.544
After interviewing 475 people currently and recently prosti-tuted in five countries (South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, USA, Zambia), 73% reported physical assault in prostitu-tion, 62% reported having been raped since entering prostitution, 67% met criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD. On average, 92% stated that they wanted to leave prostitution.545
Of 130 people working as prostitutes in San Francisco interviewed regarding the extent of violence in their lives and symptoms of PTSD. 57% reported that they had been sexually assaulted as children and 49% reported that they had been physically assaulted as children. As adults in prostitution, 82% had been physically assaulted; 83% had been threatened with a weapon; 68% had been raped while working as prostitutes; and 84% reported current or past homelessness.546
There are few, if any, programs addressing the needs of children of prostitutes. In a recent study of 1,963 prosti-tutes in New York City that approached a mobile van pro-viding services to street walking prostitutes, more than two-thirds had at least one child. The average number of children was 2.25. 40% of the children lived with their grandmothers, but 20% lived with a mother working as a prostitute. 9% of the children were in foster care. 5% of the working prostitutes were pregnant when interviewed.547
A study released by the National Center for Exploited and Missing Children, noted previous data on a sample of countries illustrating the scope of international child pros-titution and child-sex tourism:548
The Chinese police report that about 5,000 Chinese girls have been lured across the border and sold as prostitutes since 1989. In addition, the Peking People’s Daily reported in 1994 “that more than 10,000 women and children are abducted and sold each year in Sichaun alone.”
According to the Human Rights Watch Report 1995, 20% of Bombay, India’s brothel population is com-posed of girls who are younger than 18, at least half of whom are HIV positive.
543 Dalla, R.L. (2002) Night Moves: Qualitative Investigation of Street-Level Sex Work. Psychology of Women Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 1 63-73
544 Population Reports: Ending Violence Against Women, 2000
545 Farley, M., Baral, I., Kiremire, M. and Sezgin, U., “Prostitution in Five Countries:” Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Feminism & Psychology, 1998, Volume 8 (4): 405.
546 Farley, M., Barkan, H., “Prostitution, Violence Against Women and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder,” Women in Health, 27 (3): 37-49, 1998.
547 Weiner, A., “Understanding the Social Needs of Streetwalking Prostitutes,” 1996, Social Work,_41 (1): 99.
548 Klain, E. J. (1999). Prostitution of Children and Child-Sex Tourism: An Analysis of Domestic and International Responses. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, [available at http: //www.missingkids.com]
. Although statistics vary greatly, the number of children involved in the Thai commercial-sex industry range from the government’s estimate of 10,000 to an NGO’s estimate of 800,000. The greatest number of child prostitutes working in the commercial-sex industry are girls who are younger than 16 years of age working in brothels patronized by locals and visitors from neigh
boring Asian countries.
A recent study found that while males who participated in contact sports were no more likely to be sexually aggres-sive than males who did not, males who did identify them-selves as being more competitive and win-oriented report-ed being more sexually aggressive and were more likely to hold rape supportive beliefs than males who did not identi-fy themselves with those characteristics.549
In a study conducted with samples of middle school, high school and university students in their views of situations in which a man could assume a woman wants to have sex, findings from the “Rules About Sex Questionnaire” includ-ed:550
University students endorsed the fewest rules, middle schoolers endorsed the most.
University men and women surveyed agreed on the rule that a lack of verbal and physical resistance (i.e. “a woman does not say “no” to a request for sexual inter-course” and a “woman does not physically resist a man’s sexual advances”) were two rules that sanc-
tioned an assumption of sex by the man.
Middle school girls believed that if a male assumed sexual experience of a woman (i.e. “a man goes out with a woman who has a reputation of being “easy”) it was reasonable for the man to assume the woman
wants to have sex.
A significant rule for middle and high school girls and boys reflected overt behavior on the part of the woman
(i.e. kissing, touching, grabbing or petting).
The more rules a respondent endorsed the more likely
the male survey respondent was to have self-reported having been sexually coercive with a female.
549 Smith, D. and Stewart, S. (2003). “Sexual Aggression and Sports Participation” Journal of Sports Behavior, Vol. 26, No. 4: 384-396.
550 Anderson, V., Simpson-Taylor, D., and Herrmann, D., (2004) “Gender, Age and Rape-Supportive Roles” Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Vol. 50, No. 1-2: 77-91.
In analyzing previous research on the relationship between alcohol and sexual assault, researchers noted that:551
Nondrinking college students were more likely to view a depiction of acquaintance rape as consensual when both members of the couple have been drinking.
When college students were asked to review various vignettes depicting a sexual assault and define the level of resistance by the female and force by the male it would require for them to consider the incident “rape”, researchers found that men who had identified them-selves as previously having committed what would be considered a sexual assault were more likely than any other surveyed student to require the most resistance by female and the most force by the male if both mem-bers of the couple depicted had been drinking before they would identify the act depicted as rape.
Vignettes depicting both the male and female in the couple equally intoxicated, drinking women were con-sidered more responsible than the male for the sexual assault. Males were more likely to be viewed as more responsible when they were sober and the victim was intoxicated.
Researchers studying sexual coercion beliefs among a group of homeless youth found that the youth had learned that “persistence pays off.” Even though a person may indicate that he or she does not want to proceed to more sexually intimate behavior, some study participants had learned to anticipate this response from their partner and persist until their goal of sexual intercourse had been achieved. Some participants indicated that the lack of interest in sex on the part of their partner was a signal for them to increase the pressure or coercive tactics.552
Women who had a history of sexual assault had a higher likelihood than others of feeling that they can never make their own decision about sexual activity. 20% of the women surveyed (n=904) also indicated that they never had the right to refuse to have sexual intercourse, to ask their partner if he has a STD or to say when their partner is being too rough sexually.553
The Kaiser Family Foundation report on Sex Education in America found that, of students who have had sex educa-tion, 55% say they need more information on what to do if you or a friend has been raped or assaulted. This category was the number one response from students when asked
551 Abbey, A. (2002) “Alcohol-Related Sexual Assaults: A Common Problem Among College Students” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Vol. 63, No. 2 S118-129
552 Strike, C., Myers, T., Calzavara, L., & Haubrich,
D. (2001). “Sexual Coercion Among Young Street-Involved Adults: Perpetrators and Victim’s
Perspectives” Violence and Victims Vol. 16, No. 5. 537-551.
553 Rickert, V.I., Sanghvi, R., & Wiemann, C.M. (2002) “Is Lack of Sexual Assertiveness Among Adolescent & Young Women a Cause for Concern?” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health Vol. 34, No. 4, 178-183.
what subject they needed more information about from sex education.554
Of public secondary school principals surveyed recently, 88% said that local government/school districts influenced sex education curriculum either “some” (31%) or a “great deal” (57%).555
In a study of 1,351 television programs aired during prime time in a single week, a total of 9% of all talk about sex on television involved mention or description of sex-related crimes, when teens were involved, this percentage jumped to 12%. This included talk about such acts as rape, incest, and sexually-related hate crimes (e.g. “gay-bashing”), among others. Of all cases in this category nearly half (48%) were found in non-fiction genres such as news magazines or talk shows.556
In a 1995 survey of 1,965 8th and 9th graders:557
11% agreed that if a girl said “no” to sex she usually really meant “yes,”
Nearly 27% agreed that girls who get drunk at parties or on dates deserve whatever happens to them,
Over 46% felt that being raped was sometimes the vic-tim’s fault,
40% agreed that girls who wear sexy clothes are ask-ing to be raped,
Over 33% felt that they would not be arrested if they forced a dating partner to have sex,
More than 20% agreed that when a girl wears sexy clothes on a date it means she wants to have sex,
36% agreed that when a girl agrees to go into a bed-room on a date, it means she wants to have sex,
Over 15% said that forcing your date to have sex is acceptable in some circumstances, and
Over 7% said it is acceptable for a boy to force a girl to have sex if she got the boy sexually excited.
In a study surveying 6,000 students at 32 colleges and uni-versities in the U.S., (3,028 women and 2,972 men) 1 in 12 male students surveyed had committed acts that met the legal definitions of rape or attempted rape, yet virtually none of those men identified themselves as rapists. 16% of the male students who had committed rape and 10% of
554 Hoff, T, and Green, L. September 2000. “Sex Education in America: A Series of National Surveys of Students, Parents, Teachers and Principals.” Summary of Findings, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 5.
555 Ibid: 7.
556 Kunkel, D., Cope, K.M., Farinola, W.J.M, Biely, E., et al. 1999. “Sex on TV: A Biennial Report to the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.” Executive Summary, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 43.
557 American Medical Association, 1997. Facts About Sexual Assault. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association. Citing Vangie Foshee et al., 1996. “The Safe Project: Theoretical Basis, Evaluation Design and Selected Baseline Findings.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 12(5): 39-47. Vangie Foshee unpublished data, 1996.
558 Warshaw, 1994.
559 Boxley, Jeane; Lawrance, Lynette; Gruchow, Harvey. A Preliminary Study of Eighth Grade Students’ Attitudes Toward Rape Myths and
Women’s Roles, 95 65 (3): 97.
560 Hoff, Tina and Greene, Liberty. September, 2000. “Sex Education in America: A Series of National Surveys of Students, Parents, Teachers and Principals.” Summary of Findings, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 4
561 Hynie, M., Schuller, R.A., Couperwaite, L. (2003). “Perceptions of Sexual Intent: the Impact of Condom Possession” Psychology of Women Quarterly. Vol. 27, 75-79
those who attempted a rape took part in episodes involving more than one attacker. 85% of the men who had commit-ted acts that met the legal definition of rape said that what they did was definitely not rape.558
Of 200 eighth grade students surveyed about their attitudes towards women in 1995, male respondents (62.7%) were six times more likely than females (10.1%) to believe that “Boys are better leaders than girls.” Male respondents (35.4%) were twice as likely than the females (17.4%) to agree with the statement, “More encouragement in a fami-ly should be given to sons than daughters to go to college.” Twice as many males (36.3%) as females (15.6%) believed “Girls should be more concerned with becoming good wives and mothers than desiring a profession or business career.” Female respondents were more likely than males to agree with the statements, “On a date, the boy should be expected to pay all expenses” (F-74.3%, M-51.0%), “On the average, girls are as smart as boys” (F-92.6%, M-61.8%), “If both husband and wife have jobs, the husband should do a share of the housework such as washing dish-es and doing the laundry” (F-98.2%, M-64.7%)559
In a recent survey, 97% of parents surveyed by the Kaiser Family Foundation wanted sex education to include what their teen should do if raped.560
Participants presented with various scenarios involving an acquaintance rape in which the female did or did not have a condom in her possession (the scenarios indicated that a condom package was visible in her backpack), viewed the scenarios as follows:561
The woman was viewed as more sexually willing if she had a condom in her possession than a woman who did not.
The couple was viewed to be more likely to have sex when the woman had a condom in her possession than when she did not.
When the woman possessed a condom the study participants found that the male’s belief that the sex was consensual was more reasonable than when the woman did not have a condom in her possession.
Between March 2002 and April 2004 the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services office supplied 371 T-Visa to victims of trafficking in the United States.562
A report to the U.S. Congress approximated that 700,000 people (mostly women and children) are trafficked across national borders each year worldwide. The number rises to between 1-4 million based on reports from other organiza-tions.563
50, 000 women and children are trafficked annually to the United States for sexual exploitation.564
Citing governmental reports and other international data, it is estimated that about 30,000 women and children are trafficked each year from Southeast Asia, 10,000 from Latin America, and 4,000 from Eastern Europe. At least 300,000 women are trafficked into the European Union and Central Europe each year.565
One estimate puts the total earned by international traf-fickers at $9 billion dollars per year.566
In India, more than 200,000 persons are trafficked in the country each year. More than 2.3 million girls and women are believed to be working in the sex industry against their will at any given time in India.567
Analysis of existing government data or private research indicates that: 4,000 people were trafficked from Kyrgyzstan in 1999 with the principal destination being China, Germany, Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates. Of those trafficked, 62% reported being forced to work without pay and over 50% reported being physically abused or tortured by their employers. Estimates indicate that over 200,000 Bangladeshi women had been trafficked between 19901997.568
In a needs assessment study conducted with 207 agencies across the United States identifying themselves as providers of services to trafficking victims, researchers noted some characteristics about the services needed and provided, and the barriers to the receipt and provision of those services.569
A majority of respondents (89%) reported working with female victims of trafficking (45% also reported working with male victims) and all victims were primarily adults.
80% of sex trafficking victims served by respondents
562 U.S. Department of State. (June 2004). Homeland Security Agency Works to Combat Human Trafficking Backgrounder Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State.
563 Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. (2002). Trafficking in Persons Report: A Report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State.
565 Nelson, K.E. (2002) “Sex Trafficking and Forced Prostitution: Comprehensive New Legal Approaches” Houston Journal of International Law Vol. 24, No. 3, 551-578.
567 U.S. House of Representatives International Relations Committee. (2002) Foreign Government Complicity in Human Trafficking: A Review of the State Department’s 2002 Trafficking in Persons Report (Hearing Transcript). Washington, D.C.: Federal News Service, Inc.
568 World Health Organization, (2002).
569 Caliber Associates Inc., (2003). Needs Assessment for Service Providers and Trafficking Victims. Fairfax, VA: Caliber Associates Inc.
worked in forced prostitution, servile marriages, sex tourism/entertainment or pornography.
Most responding agencies reported working with their trafficking victims for more than 12 months. Usually this duration tended to reflect that these clients were actively participating in the prosecution of their case and, therefore, tended to stay in the area for longer periods of time.
Sexual assault service agencies (60%) and prostitution recovery agencies (43%) reported a higher rate of diffi-culty meeting the needs of trafficking victims than did faith based (17%), immigrant (16%) and domestic vio-lence (6%) service agencies.
While the list of needs of all trafficking victims is lengthy, respondents indicated that sex trafficking vic-tims tended to have greater need for legal/paralegal services (99%), medical services (98%) and informa-tion/referral services (97%).
According to respondents, the greatest barriers to sex trafficking victims receiving their services tended to center around the victims’ fear of retaliation against themselves or their families (90%) and because of a lack of awareness of the availability of services (85%). Trafficking victims generally, most often cited fear of retaliation (87%), lack of knowledge of available serv-ices (83%) and fear of deportation (83%) as the great-est barriers to accessing social services.
Respondents identified the most frequent barriers to providing services to trafficking victims as lack of: adequate resources (78%), adequate funding (72%) and adequate training (65%).