Coup leader Kim Ok-kyun. He would later be assassinated in China and his body cut up and the pieces sent throughout Korea as a warning to others.
Pak Yong-hyo, So Kwang-bom, So Chae-pil (Philip Jaisohn) and Kim Ok-kyun (left to right) in Japan in early 1885, after fleeing Korea following the failed coup d'etat.
1881年に視察のため日本を訪問し、1882年に再来日して福沢諭吉の支援を受けながら遊学する中で、日本にならって内政、外交の維新を志すようになった朝鮮王朝末期の政治運動家金玉均(Kim Ok Kyun/きん・ぎょくきん/1851 - 1894)が朝鮮政府の刺客により上海で暗殺された。
Timeline for Korea 1810-1910
Lost korea (19 Century ~ 20 Century)
An English-language newspaper "The North China Herald" (5/5/1905) reads:
"No land could possibly make a greater showing for bribery and corruption than Corea herself. On no piece of ground have men deceived and been deceived more universally than in this peninsula. No Government ever rexisted that was more iufected with rottenness to the bones, cheating, defrauding. But Corea has grown accustomed to and unconscious of her own way of doing such things and sees only fault of others."
A German-language newspaper "Frankfurter Zeitung" (6/11/1894) reads:
"To speak plainly, Korea is "sick man of East Asia". The King has no power and the Court is the most immoral and corrupt one all over Asia. Its Army has no value, and the Navy doesn't exist because of no money. The importance of Korea is only its geographical location."
Lillias Horton Underwood (US, 1851-1921) "Fifteen Years among the Top-Knots or Life in Korea"
"Just when everything seemed hopelessly blocked, the epidemic of Asiatic cholera broke out. Why Koreans do not have this every summer raging through the whole country is one of the unsolved problems. All sewage runs into filthy, narrow ditches, which are frequently stopped up with refuse, so as to overflow into the streets, green slimy pools of water lie undisturbed in courtyards and along the side of the road, wells are polluted with drainage from soiled apparel washed close by, quantities of decaying vegetable matter are thrown out and left to rot on the thoroughfares and under the windows of the houses." (p. 133-134)
George Nathaniel Curzon (UK, 1859-1925) "Problems of the Far East: Japan-Korea-China"
"Each street or alley, moreover, has an open gutter running upon either side, and containing all the refuse of human and animal life. Söul is consequently a noisome and malodorous place ; and exploration among its labyrinthine alleys is a disagreeable to the nostril as it is bewildering to the eye." (p. 128)
Angus Hamilton (UK, 1874-1913) "Korea"
"The poverty and squalor of these hamlets was astonishing. The people seemed without spirit, content to live an idle, slatternly existence in sleeping, yawning, and eating by turns." (p. 249)
"Although the Koreans boast an ancient civilization of their own, the country hither to possessed hardly any public roads, except the so-called "grand road" from Seoul to the Chinese border, and a few roads between the capitol and some provincial cities.
During the China-Japan War, the Seoul - Chemulpo highway was constructed by the Japanese army, and two trunk roads from Seoul to Wonsan and Wiju respectively were similarly made by the Japanese troops during the war with Russia.
In order to facilitate transportation, the Korean Government (as stated in the report for 1906) allotted 1,500,000 yen out of the Loan for public Undertakings to construct four roads; namely, one between Chinnanpo and Ping-yang; another form Tai-ku to Ya-nil Bay, by way of Kyang-ju; a third from Yonsan kang to Mok-po; and a fourth from Keun-kang to Kunsan." (p. 269)
William Elliot Griffis (1843-1928) "Corea the Hermit Nation"
"Chō-sen is represented as a human being, of whom the king is the head, the nobles the body, and the people the legs and feet. The breast and belly are full, while both head and lower limbs are gaunt and shrunken. The nobles not only drain the life-blood of the people by their rapacity, but they curtail the royal prerogative. The nation is suffering from a congestion, verging upon a dropsical condition of over-officialism." (p. 229)
"Corean architecture is in a very primitive condition. The castles, fortifications, temples, monasteries and public buildings cannot approach in magnificence those of Japan or China. The country, though boasting hoary antiquity, has few ruins in stone. The dwellings are tiled or thatched houses, almost invariably one story high. In the smaller towns there are not arranged in regular streets, but scattered here hand there. Even in the cities and capital the streets are narrow and tortuous." (p. 262)