Friday, September 30, 2011

Celtic Spiral From Eroica with Love

Speaking about Switzerland, i imagine the german Maj is annoying his father and says that "You've got to write your not completed memoir in Switzerland forever!"

TOBLERONE chocolate

エロイカより愛をこめて (33) 青池 保子
From Eroica with Love Yasuko Aoike

"From Eroica With Love" - Celtic Spiral

"Celtic spiral"is the prestigious masterpiece in "Eroica" while be represented after the Cold War, Finally i can read through the book.

"Eroica" is one of my top three favorite manga. not Exaggeration to say it changed my life .really. The story is interesting, the pictures is fine, good men and nice lines in dramatic composition.

the story of "Celtic Spiral" is as follows.
 "Sirius" ,the codename is the mysterious terrorist who plans to outflow the nuclear materials from nuclear power plant in Bulgaria, and to use it to terrorism. the NATO intelligence officer Major Eberbach keeps track him, whole the episodes in three volumes.

the sinister councilor of EU helps the drained who is leaked by CIA, and Revealed. the councilor's one of the interests is  Celtic, Countess Gloria aims his treasures of Celtic, and he impedes the duties of German major. do not bother spree.

there are stage where many rural or small-town in France and Germany, and the depictions of the city and stationery from the dishes, ranging from special forces uniforms, in ultra-precision, want to observe carefully.

the most favorite dialogue,
"i can't see nothing in the dark, then its useless to use my eyes,then close my eyes," laughs laughs laughs.

Un-fucking-believable, stingy James . Early times but James was a nice man.

vol 18 emperor waltz

Celtic Spiral







『真っ暗闇で何も見えない もったいないから目を閉じよう』笑笑笑。






全体的には、絵が昔に戻ってきている??? 12月の『プリンセスGOLD』でエロイカ復活するらしいんで、今から楽しみ

Encourage people to prepare. 国民に覚悟しろと。

Encourage people to prepare.
specifically describing the Law provisions of the Civil Defense Organization, the development of shelter, to keep the amount of goods such as food and reserves.
supplies in emergency pack, needed for two weeks (always put in theharborages), which is detailed breakdown of materials needed for 2 months.
Moreover, not only about the horrors of nuclear weapons or biological weapons, explains how to protect themselves from attacks.

Next, the praxis.
Switzerland's neighbors to be becoming dispute.
what would active Swiss private organizations and disaster.
on coastal seas, the nuclear test is performed.
confirm the shelter materials, evacuate.
invasion country is attempting the neutral Switzerland, to violate the freedom and independence.... War is imminent.

here, read interesting and growing tension.
Then the war is becoming by surprise attack of invasion country.
battle or death. The progress of the war, written indifferently.

The Swiss government is to emphasize that "Having a strong, united, hang in there until the end" it has been stressed throughout the full of the book.

Here explains another aspect of the war.
when the adverse country take no destructive mean without military.
... According to the book, Japan and neighboring countries, i believe that we are rush in psychology war.

enemy attempts to crush our resistance intentions.
"noe nuclear armament,it is not appropriate for Switzerland.
Farmers! don't make armored vehicles into your land.
we require, huge amounts of money spending to initiatives to reduce military, all of them we are, in order to build houses for the masses, give recess each person, to increase the pensions for widows, orphans and disabled persons,reduce working hours, must be used for low taxes. In favor of the better future!
(formed association for the Peace advocacy) peace! Peace!
Christian Association for Peace, not kill,in particularly women who shall conduct the campaign against the war . "

(the situation is very similar with japan.)

the public enemy attempts to be sleeping by sweet words.
Totalitarian state (what this book wrote) send spy, to exploit publicity in the press.
In particular, condemn and menacing against hostile their ideology.
Discredit the authority of the government, try to be separate from the nations. Attempts to divide in the government.
if not able to keep the Law and order, the nation would be end.
(If people unit themselves, the fate of Swiss would be holden in the hands of citizens).
subsequent in cowardice acting and resignation, Swiss would finally succumb.
"old institutions of the Swiss"  is finished.

That's all I thought, but great Switzerland here.
"We wish to be Swiss forever, to be free again.
Switzerland's independence, which depends on everyone of our nations!
for the psychological defense, we would get the victory in the final stages."

At the beginning of the resistance movement.
Do not give up until the end. Unite. Until the day be released.

i cried for the difference with Japan.the inaction of Japanese government.

quote form afterwords,
"Peace-loving country to prepare in any danger, peace-loving nation to take no notice of any danger."
" ready for war, prepare for disasters" those advocates, while in Asia, has been issued by the leaders of our neighboring countries. The same leaders issue that " do not have a war, not expect a disaster, " earnestly peace thoroughly committed in our country, the state what would be called as militarism."

that's right.
Democracy, freedom and peace, the war renunciation, peace, you just were not keeping by Buddhist chanting.
People begin to take arms, can be protected.

Japanese say we have Article 9 in the Constitution, war would be not condone.
Man knows that there is Article 9 in Japan, its also questionable how much people are on the planet.
Some people have been taught that"War is absolute evil!", althought war is a diplomatic one for the legitimate independent state.
An abnormal state that is being deprived of it, it is Japan today.

"don't make resistance" as the Declaration of vulnerable areas.
If war happens, its useless the city declared unprotected areas.
the movement of Defenseless man now, its nonsense since not emergency time at all.

Then, no matter the Geneva Conventions, war, it is commonplace to occured murder,robbery,rape indiscriminately against civilians.
exhaust killing, burning, stealing.What happened in Dresden? Tokyo Air Raid?
It is the reality of war.

To start with now, please enact antiespionage law.
Been postponing the regulations of child anime sex comics....
To improve national morale, revive the education rescript ....

the Trends in neighboring countries, i guess that started to give a sense of crisis in Japan's national who are diving on peaceful flower garden.
even if Japanese government tries to make out some  peacefully, to hide it,its smelling.
Oh Oh, like the corporal who were in somewhere country, i will take a dangerous illusion that hope to get such a politician.

Peace in land, war,defense, and citizens..?
what happens in Japan when the case of emergency.
What really will protect America? will sacrifice their own soldiers?
The Japanese government, the SDF, the police, what do they give to people.
At that time, I myself should I do?

For my country,local love, my family.
(yeah, i can understand obviously its trouble for  someone who hate the Japanese patriotic feelings and the cultivated)
Are you forever to be a Japanese? do you desire to be free forever?
for Your children and grandchildren, what do you wish to leave which Japan ...?








「核武装反対 それはスイスにふさわしくない。
農民たち! 装甲車を諸君の土地に入れさせるな。
軍事費削減のためのイニシアティブを これらに要する巨額の金を、すべてわれわれは、大衆のための家を建てるために、各人に休暇を与えるために、未亡人、孤児および不具者の年金を上げるために、労働時間を減らすために、税金を安くするために使わなければならない。よりよき未来に賛成!
平和のためのキリスト教者たちの大会 汝殺すなかれ 婦人達は、とりわけ戦争に反対する運動を行わなければならない。」





















Thursday, September 29, 2011

swiss self defense and japanese article nine of the constitution 

Switzerland is a permanent neutral state. In fact, since the approval by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Switzerland has kept the peace nearly 200 years in a long time.
However, Switzerland  can not keep the peace just declared "i'm neutral" at all. While declaring the neutral, most was invaded in war histories.
Switzerland, to keep our neutral and to defend the peace, not only with the army, making a lot of fallout shelters at the town, civilians organize the disaster prevention organization for private sector.

民間防衛 新装版―あらゆる危険から身をまもる

quotes from P12
"do we have the dangerous condition?"
This book was written on the assumption that our country shall be subject to future threats.

When peace shall be forever guaranteed us, why need for military defense and civil defense. every people wants peace.
Nevertheless, nobody feels that being freed from the obligation to prepare for war, since history teaches it us . Swiss have never dreamed that any aggression.

However, we hope to survive.
Switzerland respects the rights of each neighbors.
However, we do not want to be absolutely devastated by the neighbors.
Switzerland  cooperate to the best performed of constructive acts by human beings all over the world.
However, we do not want to do ordered it ourself from others.
Switzerland as a industrialized  and commercial nation,  trading in the world under the conditions of free competition, Swiss products received high reputation at large, its prove to the conscience of our public profession.
However, depending on such the evaluations, Swiss, it will not possible to stand outside in the Great War.
Switzerland's strategic position in Europe is tempting for other countries.
the transportation network, appears to be indispensable for those belligerents.
Put simply, we do not have the right to stand passively escape around.
We are forced to prepare for the occurrence of any situation, the reality is the simplest. 

Security in our country is depends on whether or not to effort defense in our military and civilian. , what we can not think of another thing today against thought of yesterday all anyhow. By collectively decided today that we do personally, tomorrow to be depends. like our parents were worried about us, we should consider our children.
Freedom and independence is the most precious in our assets.
- Freedom and independence is absolutely not be given. Freedom and independence is the right must always abide,it is simply never get defensive by only words or protest.  to request with the weapons in hand, could be obtained for the first time.

To promote the common welfare for all citizens, giving strong force to the  nation while them joint it, on the other hand their own citizens are freely for ideological, language and spiritual traditions. Individuals can be have the freedom at first if there is freedom of the whole community. We should observe it.

"Article 9" The Constitution in Japan, its mistake that japanese is only the the peace constitution all over the world.
there is a different way of the expression, 182 rigid constitution in the world , there are 149 countries which Constitutions are included the pacifist clause. the rate is 81.9 percent.
the constitution of 84 countries where was established since 1990, that the rate are higher.Peace clause, the provision has the norm in most countries.

The major difference between Switzerland, japan is as equal as the irresponsibility nation, like sing a peace clause and end with it. as opposed to japan, people in other countries are declared that to protect the people's lives, property, land and the closed sea, the necessary of the holdings the military or organization. and clearly the responsibility of the defense in accordance with an awareness to all citizens, to clarify the obligations of the defense, however how can we coping in the emergency provision.

quote from "to be Noble, strong and beautiful"
Author: Yoshiko Sakurai

Amending article nine of the constitution is now high on Japan's political agenda.

war-renouncing Article 9

Article nine of Japan's constitution states "the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes."

from eijiro


我が国の安全保障は、われわれ軍民の国防努力いかんによって左右されるということである。 きのう考えたことと別のことを、きょう考えるわけには、どうしてもいかないのだ。われわれが個人的に集団的に今日決意したことによって、明日が左右されるのである。 親たちがわれわれのことを心配してくれたように、子供たちのことを考えよう。 自由と独立は、われわれの財産の中で最も尊いものである。--自由と独立は、断じて、与えられるものではない。 自由と独立は、絶えず守らねばならない権利であり、ことばや抗議だけでは決して守り得ないものである。手に武器を持って要求して、初めて得られるものである。


「第九条」 日本国憲法は、世界で唯一の平和憲法  の誤り



著 櫻井よしこ

Trafficking in Persons Report 2011 2011年人身売買報告書(米政府HPより)

++++Japan and Human Trafficking+++++
Trafficking in Persons Report 2011 ( U.S. Department of State)
Japan is 2nd degree human trafficking country, same level as India and Brazil.
Many NGOs expressed concern about? the child sex tourism in Japan.
Check my channel for the link
truesky00 3 日前

US department changed to PDF file
new link :
you can see Japan is Tier2 level of human trafficking
same level as India, Brazil, Cambodia. Laos etc.
Do you have more questions?




1 名前:有明省吾 ◆BAKA1DJoEI @有明省吾ρ ★ 2011/06/28(火) 11:47:22.37 ID:???0




(2011年6月28日10時43分 読売新聞)

the hat of kisaeng Korean traditional hat-maehwa junmo 기생 모자

Hwang Jin Yi, the drama is very interested in studying Korean hetaera Kisaeng.

Hwang Jin Yi ost - The dance of the sword  剣の舞

《삶과꿈》에서는 중앙대학교 교양학부대학 신현규 교수의 도움으로 <기생 푸르디푸른 꿈을 꾸다>란 제목 하에 우리나라의 기생들의 삶과 꿈을 재조명해 보는 새로운 코너를 만들었습니다. EBS-TV 평생대학 ‘신현규의 조선 기생이야기’(3부작) 특강, LG 생활건강 ‘조선트랜드세터 기생이야기’ 특강, 중앙공무원연수원 ‘조선 기생이야기’ 특강 등 기생에 대한 오랜 연구를 바탕으로 많은 강의를 해오신 신현규 교수가 들려주는 재미있는 기생이야기. 《삶과꿈》 기생이야기 연재는 8월을 맞아 항일독립운동의 꽃, 기생 현계옥의 ‘삶과 꿈’에 대한 이야기로 시작합니다. - 편집자 註

‘말을 타는 기생’이 ‘항일무장 독립운동가’로 변신했다는 사실은 놀랄 만한 일이다. 1910년대 후반에 들어서자 신문지상에서 ‘말을 타는 기생’의 대명사로 알려진 이가 바로 현계옥(玄桂玉, 1897∼?)이다. 우리나라 근대 승마의 역사에서 기생 출신의 여성들은 ‘여성 최초’의 서구식 승마를 했다는 타이틀을 얻었다.

계옥은 경상북도 달성 출신으로 일찍 부모를 여의고 17세에 대구기생조합에 들어가 기생이 된다. 그녀의 용모는 풍만했고, 재주는 민첩했다. 경박하지 않고, 풍류가무도 뛰어났다. 무엇보다 한문에 조예가 깊었다. 가곡, 정재무, 승무, 그리고 절묘한 가야금 연주도 그녀의 일부와 같았다. 그녀가 하는 소리와 산조도 빼놓을 수 없다. 특히 춤과 가야금에는 대적할 이가 없다하여 풍류객들의 인기를 독차지하던 당대의 명기였다. 남보다 재주가 많으면 남보다 정조도 더 굳은 걸까.

그런 콧대 높은 계옥이 현정건(玄鼎健, 1887∼1932)이라는 남성을 만나 뜨거운 연애사건을 벌이게 된다. 현정건은 소설 《운수 좋은 날》을 쓴 현진건(玄鎭健, 1900∼1943)의 사촌 형으로 일찍이 일본·중국 등지로 돌아다니면서 유학한 인텔리이다. 그가 때로 고향에 돌아왔다가 친구와 어울려서 기생집을 한 번씩 찾곤 했는데, 이후 계옥에게 운명의 남자가 된다. 그녀의 나이 19세, 시국에 불만을 품고 중국, 일본으로 돌아다니던 그의 소식을 조금이라도 더 듣기 위해 계옥은 거처를 경성의 한남권번으로 옮기기까지 하였다.

정건의 집안에서는 기생과 친하게 지내면 못 쓴다고 그의 일거수일투족을 엄중히 감시하기에 이른다. 계옥의 집안에서도 돈이 없는 그를 가까이 할 필요가 있느냐며 그녀를 닦달하였다. 이미 타오르기 시작한 젊은 남녀의 사랑을 누가 막을 수 있을까. 계옥은 자신의 기생생활을 저주하며 박명을 한탄하던 나머지 신경쇠약에 걸리어 밤잠을 못 이루고 신음하는 몸이 되고 만다.

몽매에 그리워하던 정건이 얼마 되지 아니하여 중국 상해로 들어가고, 한 이탈리아 신문의 기자로 있게 되자

“날 데려 가오.”

“잠깐만 더 기다리오.”

하는 편지가 황해 바다를 덮을 만큼 끊임없이 오고갔다.

그런데 계옥의 손님 중에 전(田)씨 성을 가진 한 청년은 같이 한 번 살아보면 여한이 없겠노라고 애원하기까지 하였다. 계옥이 흔들리지 않고, 단호하게 거절한다. 실망한 청년은 현정건을 빗대어 ‘현(玄)’씨끼리 살면 ‘자(玆)’씨가 된다고 비꼰다. 구변 좋은 계옥은 ‘현(玄)’씨와 ‘전(田)’씨가 같이 살면 ‘축(畜)’씨가 된다고 대응한다. 절묘한 거절이다. 똑똑한 계옥의 재치가 돋보이는 이 일화는 유명하다.

애국투쟁을 위해 만주로 떠나다

계옥은 현정건의 소식을 듣기 위해 압록강을 건너오는 독립 청년들과 자주 사귀게 된다. 그 덕분에 중국 신해혁명에 유명한 손문(孫文)과 함께 한 혁명가 황흥(黃興, 1874~1916)의 사적도 전해 듣는다. 당시 중국의 기녀들은 민족이 위기에 처해 있는 긴급한 상황에서 독특한 방식으로 애국 투쟁을 벌이고 있었다. 기녀들은 ‘청루(靑樓)구국단’을 조직하여 “직업은 비록 천하지만 애국하는 것은 한 가지다”라는 성명을 낸다. 적지 않은 연예인과 가녀(歌女)들도 애국투쟁에 참여하기 위하여 연극과 노래를 중지한다. 또한 중국 천진(天津)의 기루(妓樓)에서 기녀 정추진이 ‘여자 혁명결사대’를 통하여 이름을 일세에 떨치고 있다는 것을 알게 된다. 이에 자신의 새로운 앞길을 결정하고 마침내 험난한 만주 벌판으로 떠날 결심을 굳힌다.

이제 계옥은 정건의 애인이자 동지가 되었다. 경찰들이 기생집에 감시가 허술한 점을 틈타 모임을 주선하고 여러 핑계로 요릿집 놀음에도 나가지 않았다. 노래는 물론이요 일흔 두 가지 춤을 출 줄 알고, 한문 글씨 잘 쓰기로도 당대의 기생 중 대적이 없었다는, 특히 말 잘 타기로 이 유명한 기생. 아무리 애를 쓰고 마음을 태워도 그녀를 볼 수 없었던 풍류객들은 애가 탈대로 타서 녹아버릴 지경이었다. 심지어 황금정 승마구락부에서 남자처럼 승마복을 입고 말 타는 그녀를 찾아다니는 풍류객까지 생길 정도였다. 당시 계옥이 승마복을 입고 모자를 눌러쓰고 자신의 키보다 높은 말 위에 앉아 화살같이 달리는 늠름한 모습을 한번쯤 상상해보면 어떤 남성이라도 미혹할 만하지 않을까.

드디어 21살이 되던 해 봄, 1919년 2월에 계옥은 몰래 가산을 정리하여 길 떠날 준비를 마친다. 그런데 같이 가려던 정건이 일제 경찰에 구속되고 만다. 다행히 얼마 되지 아니하여 그가 석방되던 때는, 남녀노소 할것없이 모두 만세들을 부르고 투옥되던 처절한 3월 중순경이었다. 계옥은 밤을 새워 잡히지 않고 무사히 강을 건널 방법을 모색한다. 정건과 중국에서 만날 약속을 한 후, 그가 소개해 준 청년의 뒤를 따라나선다. 계옥은 중국옷으로 변장하고 귀를 뚫어 중국 여자 모양으로 고리를 걸어서 교묘히 피하기도 하였다.

중국 안도현에서 이틀 밤을 자고 봉천에 이르러 ‘황사후루(皇寺後褸)’란 곳에서 보름 동안 머물렀다. 하지만 일본 관헌의 감시는 여전히 심하고 계옥을 알지 못하는 청년들은 그녀의 행색을 의심하기에 이른다. 이러저러한 상황에 몰려 계옥은 ‘북릉어화원(北陵御花園)’이란 곳으로 옮겨서 그가 찾아오기를 기다린다. 정건은 계옥이 뛰어난 용모로 해를 당하지 않을까 염려되어, 믿을 만한 친구에게 부탁하여 먼저 떠나보낸 터였다. 정작 자신은 독립운동 자금을 만들기 위해서 늦게 길림으로 출발하기 때문이다. 이때 봉천에 있는 계옥에게 오라고 통지를 하면서 동시에 첫 활동을 준비하게 된다.

길림, 그곳에는 1918년에 조선을 떠나 중국으로 들어간 김원봉, 김좌진, 홍범도 등이 이미 와 있었다. ‘의열단’, ‘광복단’을 조직하고 각종 기관을 만들어 내외의 연락을 도모하고 동지를 모집하여 무기를 구입하는 등 무장운동을 하는 중이었다. 마침내 정건의 부름을 받고 길림에 다다른다. 그리고 《비전(秘傳) 혁명전기》 중에서나 보던 인물들과 비로소 만난다. 지금까지 사귀어 오던 뭇 사나이들과는 비길 바가 아니었다. 정성껏 그들의 일을 돕는 한편, 정건과 단란한 가정을 이룰 꿈도 버리지 않았다. 그러나 의심 많고 시기 많은 세상은 그녀의 알뜰한 마음을 알아주지 못하였다. 오히려 꿈에도 없던 소리를 지어내기만 한다. 무성한 소문으로 그녀의 집까지 습격을 당하는 사태가 벌어진다. 계옥은 더 마음을 다잡고 다양한 방법으로 자기의 결심을 드러낸다.

유일한 여성 의혈단원이 되다

계옥은 독립운동 청년들의 고달픈 심경을 위로하고자 송화강변에서 달빛을 담아 가야금을 연주한다. 그 달빛의 선율은 젊은이들의 피를 끓게 하면서 상처 입은 영혼들을 보듬어 주었다. 차차 계옥의 정성을 알게 되자, 의열단장 김원봉의 인정을 받아 여성으로 유일한 ‘의열단원’으로 인정해 주게 된다.

그 후 계옥은 정건에게 영어를, 김원봉으로부터는 폭탄제조법과 육혈포 쏘는 방법을 배워 조직의 비밀활동을 담당하였다. 얼른 보기에 여자라고는 도저히 상상도 할 수 없는 모습으로 변신을 감행하곤 했다. 그녀는 때때로 교묘한 꾀로 의열단에 기여하는 바가 컸다.

한번은 중국 천진에 있는 폭탄을 상해로 운반해야 하는 일을 맡은 적이 있었다. 관헌의 감시가 삼엄하여 뜻을 이루지 못하고 초조해지던 차였다. 계옥은 양복을 입고 폭탄을 가지고는 단신으로 배를 타고 상해로 돌아간다. 관헌의 취조가 있을 때마다 알지 못하는 서양사람 옆으로 가서 공연한 말을 걸어서 남 보기에 부부가 여행하는 것처럼 꾸며 무사히 운반에 성공하였다. 풍속이 다르고 말이 다른 남의 나라에서 계옥과 그 일행들이 조석으로 변장을 하며 신출귀몰하였을 것을 상상해 보면 박진감 넘치는 활극을 방불케 할 것이다.

그 후 계옥은 정건과 같이 상해 프랑스 조계지에 있으면서 동생 계향(桂香)과 월향(月香)을 조선으로 보낸다. 계향은 사회주의 운동가 박일병(朴一秉, 1893~?)과 같이 일본에서 공부를 하는 중이었고, 월향은 독립운동가 신백우(申伯雨, 1887~1959)를 도와주게 된다. 상해에서는 현정건과 윤자영(尹滋瑛, 1894~?)과 더불어 여전히 항일 독립운동을 전개한다. 사이사이 꾸준히 영어공부를 계속한 덕분에 이제는 웬만한 영문소설까지도 넉넉히 볼 정도의 실력자였다.

30세가 되던 해, 정건이 1928년에 상해 프랑스 조계지에서 일본 총영사관 경찰에 체포되어 신의주지방법원에서 징역 3년형을 선고받는다. 그가 출옥 후 옥고의 후유증으로 병사하자, 계옥은 시베리아로 망명한다. 이제 당대에 대표적인 행동파 ‘사상기생(思想妓生)’이 된 것이다. 현정건에게는 1992년 건국훈장 독립장이 추서된다. 한편 그 못지않게 항일 독립운동에 헌신했던 현계옥은 누구의 손길도 닿지 않는 버려진 묘비처럼, 망명 후에 그 흔적을 알 길이 없다.

글·사진제공_ 신현규 중앙대학교 교양학부대학 교수

The History of Early Korean Cinema by Lee Young-Il

The Establishment of a National Cinema Under Colonialism:

The History of Early Korean Cinema

by Lee Young-Il


In order to understand the history of early Korean Cinema, the first task perhaps would be to consider the influence of imported films, which would be the same case for other Asian Cinemas. The first imported films, which were called "moving pictures" at the time, can be traced to two historical accounts describing the first public screenings in Korea: an 1897 screening at Bonchungjwa, located at the now called Chungmuro 4-ga, and an 1878 screening at the Chunggukin Ch'angko (Chinese Warehouse) located in Namdaemun.

However, according to a newspaper ad of the time, the first public screening of an imported film was on June 23rd, 1903 at Hansong Chonki Hoesa Kigyechang (Hansung Electric Company Machine Warehouse) in Dongdaemun, Seoul. During the same year, there was another screening at Wangakasa in Shinmunro. The first imported film was a live documentary called Cinematograph from the French company Pathe, followed by Vitascope, a collection of short films from the U.S. This was eight years after the invention of Lumiere's Cinematograph in 1895, and five to six years behind Japan and China.

Historically, the reason for such delay can be attributed to the fact that the national seclusion policy of the late 19th century, suppressing Korea's modernization, spilled over to the 20th century. But the real reason lies in the overall debilitation of Korean politics, economy, diplomacy and culture under Japanese colonialism.

In any event, the public opening of these "moving pictures" after 1903 was received with great enthusiasm. The popularity of moving pictures, which were initially used to advertise streetcars and cigarettes, enabled it to evolve into Korea's first promotional industry. The most interesting phenomenon is that from 1905 the electric company machine warehouses in Dongdaemun changed into private performance theaters such as the Hwaldongsajin Kwalamso (The Moving Picture Screening House), and Kwangmudae started to appear. In addition, three Hwaldong Sajinso (Moving Picture Photo Shops) were built near the Sodaemun intersection, and slowly gained popularity. Among these shops, a brick photo shop called Majon Photo Shop brought in Western films via Japanese merchants or films from Tienjin, Shanghai. They even imported directly from the U.S. and France.

After this early period of nameless photo shops, full-scale theaters started to appear in Seoul and regional areas such as Pusan, Inchon and Pyongyang between 1909 and 1920. Seoul theaters built after 1909 include Kodung Yonyegwan, Changansa, Yeonhungsa, and Dansongsa. And following this, ten more theaters such as Osonghwa, Kaesonghwa, Hwangkumhwa, Daejonghwa, Hwangkum Yonyegwan, which changed its name later to Umikgwan and then Daejonggwan were constructed after 1910.

These theaters were mostly Japanese owned. Among them, only Umikgwan and Dangsongsa exclusively showed foreign films and were therefore quite popular.

Perhaps the most notable one is Dangsongsa owned by Park Sung-pil. Park Sung-pil started out as the proprietor of Kwangmudae and later co-managed Dangsongsa. He made a major contribution to the Korean film industry as not only the first film promoter in Korea but also the first Korean producer of early Korean films. He was also the only Korean whose business generated genuine national promotion capital among the Japanese theater monopoly.

The audience preference at the time was divided into the Korean audience who went to see the foreign films shown at Dangsongsa located north of Ch'ongkyech'on, and the Japanese audience who went to the Japanese theaters located south of Ch'ongkyech'on. The Korean audience's preference for Western films was partly due to their antagonism towards Japan, but it was mainly because the artistic and entertainment quality of Western films was superior, and moreover they provided new knowledge and liberal views.


At any rate, the increase in film imports and promotion created two important conditions for the birth of Koran Cinema. First, the media's recognition of the cinema, and second, the establishment of a promotion and production capital. This developed over a period of sixteen years beginning in 1903. It meant that during these sixteen years, the audience didn't just exist as foreign film viewers. Instead, this first generation of film pioneers were slowly developing their dreams as actors, directors and technicians.

In 1919, Park Sung-pil, the owner of Dangsongsa, produced a series of mixed-media theater productions called Uirijok. The director, Kim Do-san, performed along with the members of his troupe, Shinjokjwa against the backdrop of the first Korean film. The performance was a Kaehwagi Shinp'a Hwalkuk which depicted the story of Ilrang overthrowing his stepmother to inherit the family's property. Performed at Dangsongsa, this piece turned out to be a big hit.

At the same time, Park Sung-pil produced three others which were successful as well. Encouraged by Park's accomplishments, Im Song-ku of the Hyokshindang Theater made Haksaeng Chului and Lee Gi-se, in charge of an art group, made Chiki and Changhanmong. The mixed-media theater boom lasted from 1919 to 1912. Unfortunately, criticism from intellectuals attacking the serial theaters as half theater, half film crippled its popularity.

On the other hand, the success of his debut film, Chiki convinced the first Korean cinematographer, Lee Pil-u that it was time to make full-scale feature films. Lee Pil-u (1897-1978) became a projection technician as a young boy in Umikgwan and later polished his skills under a British technician at Japan's Ch'olhwalsop'an Studio in 1915. With Chiki he became the father of Korean film technology. He later acquired editing and developing skills and trained many film technicians.

At last the first feature film was made in 1923. In the same year, Yun Baek-nam of the Minjong Kukdan (People's Theater) wrote and directed Ulha ui Mengse ("Wulha's Vow": 35mm, three parts) which was released in April, the same year. This was an educational film produced by Chunch'ukjangryob, the new sponsor of the post office of the Choson Government General. Meanwhile, it was made on January 13, right before the former film Kukgyong ("National Border") was made but blocked from public release. There is some dispute over whether Ulha ui Mense is the first Korean feature, however, given that Japan's Songjuk owned the rights for production, distribution and promotion. According to Lee Pil-u, in 1922 Songjuk's Japanese technician Narigiyo, came to Korea and shot a film about bandits. This film eventually ended up going to waste at Narigiyo's home in Chungu Jungdong as the Choson Government General refused to permit its public screening. This testimony is based on the conversation between Lee Pil-u and Narigiyo during one of their meetings. It is possible that Narigiyo may have been in charge of production for Kukgyong.

Film production in Korea became more active after the release of Ulha ui Mengse. In December of 1923, Hayagawa, who was the owner of Choson Theater, founded the Dong Ah Munhwa Hyophoe (Donga Cultural Society) and released Ch'unghwangjon. Park Sung-pil at Dangsongsa, which was in competition with Choson Theater, established a cinematography division and made Changhwa Hongnyonjon ("The Tale of Changhwa and Hongnyon") in 1924.

As film production took full force, within two or three years seven film companies emerged. Choson Kinema, Inc. made a number of films that Japanese merchants invested in, including Tragedy of the Sea (1924) and The Tale of Wonyong (1925). The Tale of Wonyong was written and directed by Yun Baek-nam who quit the company along with his cast and established the Yun Baek-nam Productions in order to make "pure Choson made films." The production of "pure Choson" films such as The Tale of Shimchong(1925), based on a classic Korean story, and a national education film Kaechokja ("Pioneer," 1925) provided a solid foundation for Korean Cinema. The director of both films was Lee Kyong-son.

Around the same time, Koryo Film Workshop, Bando Kinema, and Kerim Film Society were also making films.

Meanwhile, the film company Choson Kinema Production established by a Japanese hat merchant by the name of Yodo Orajo, made Nongjungjo (1926). This film was followed by Arirang (1926), which is considered the definitive masterpiece of Korean Cinema. A youthful 25 year old at the time, director Na Un-gyu wrote, directed and even played the main character of the film.

The film tells the story of Yong-jin who becomes mentally ill after being arrested and tortured by the Japanese police for leading protesters during the March 1st protest. He returns home only to be arrested again after killing the servant of an exploitative landlord who bullies him.

In short, Arirang was a film of resistance to Japanese colonialists but its artistic quality was not less than its political quality.

Na Un-gyu (1902-1937) was one of the leaders of the March 1st protest when he was merely a junior high school student. He was an independence fighter who joined the independence army and was arrested and jailed for two years. Arirang was an enormous hit but moreover, the title song of the same name became somewhat of a national anthem for Koreans during colonialism, and to this day it is one of the most loved songs among Koreans.

In early Korean Cinema history, American action entertainment Japanese shinpa (melodrama) adaptations ([Korean characters]) or sad tales of Korean kisaeng (equivalent of Japanese geishas) were the main subject matter. However, with Na Un-gyu's Arirang and its national popularity, the concept of a national cinema was finally established. Accordingly, although in the beginning Japanese investors dominated the Korean Theaters for the sole purpose of commercial profits, it was after Arirang that Koreans were able to find their sovereignty in Korean Cinema. Contesting Japanese colonialism and creating a real national cinema was the right direction for the true establishment of Korean Cinema.

The release of Arirang initiated a realism based on resistance which molded the history of Korean Cinema. After Arirang, Na Un-gyu joined forces with Park Sung-pil and founded Na Un-gyu Productions. This company released many masterpieces that were made by and for Koreans.

After 1926, more than forty film productions emerged, setting the first golden period of Korean Cinema.

Na Un-gyu,Na Woon-gyu made famous film "Arirang"

Wednesday, September 28, 2011

swiss civil defense for peace and freedom スイス民間防衛

quote from handbook of swiss civil defense

"Peace and freedom, what are not everlasting just because once it was secured. Switzerland has never imperialistic ambitions nor dreaming conquest of other territory. However, our country maintains the independence, we want to keep the system which is created for ourselves.
to take the effort, its the authorities and citizens duty for our country itself. To prepare for military defense, it takes constant effort, even for mental defense we no less need to devote in it.
each citizens, people must be prepared to suffer the shock of war.
Upon receiving the news before you prepare yourself rather,it would bring the tragic disaster.
to declaring "never has our country not war" is just imprudence, as a result would bring the big disaster.

Enemy attacks, workaround plan in Switzerland, quote from P235
do any Swiss people want not to live in peace with the world? not any Swiss people who don't want non-war? the reason why we put troops on the border is due to leave us in peace, let us live in by other countries.
Happiness of mankind is important to us. We have contributed to it as hard as one can. for example, Red Cross activities, aid to developing countries, and representative of the interests of the country in war. However, this is as real.
if we don't know it, we would be the good-natured or careless. As long as armed countries surrounding us, we can not neglect the national defense.
The possibility of attack what belligerent conflict in Europe to Switzerland, we have to think deeply the recent experience of two world wars.
Assuming the potential enemy - not able to determine under the advertising blurb on, even in the blurb, even though they're quoted phrase in Bible.
We make sure the fake pacifists are not stop to make their militants. Our belief is sincerely. We are going to kill nobody, but must ensure our defense justly.
not us forced to use our weapons! in all of we have a sincerely wish to further.

"The power of foreign propaganda" (P232)

Other countries let the public give up the fight, they can overcome their resistance.
army has Military aircrafts, armored vehicles, trained troops, but if they convince that they are useless to the people in the country, they can defeat us without through the ordeal of fire.
that becomes possible, the result of clever propaganda.

It is like demon's seduction,be accused to our most sublime emotion.
Cooperation between each ethnics, dedication to world peace, the order of establishment with love, mutual aid. War, destruction, fear of killing.
so the conclusion, abandoning our outdated military defense.
Newspaper, write up their articles which encouraged by the noble humanitarian sentiments.
The school teach the importance of friendship between nations.
The church, preach the Gospel of mercy.
thus propaganda, also using the movement of most regardable mind, help for the most sinister intentions.

"Law of war" p218,219
War itself is regulated by the law of war.

(1) The law of war, is only applied to whom wearing uniforms, combatants who trained and under the command of his superiors.

(2) All persons belonging to civilians and civilian disaster management, must not be made any military operations. the isolated acts are totally useless. it only leads to unnecessary retaliation.

(3) Any person has not been incorporated into military or civilian disaster management organization who wishes to participate in the defense of the country's cooperation shall issue his or her district to the commander. then he will put armband of white cross on red or wear the army uniform at least.

(4) residents are never going to act against the prisoners, must not show the antagonism. Even under any standing, every wounded and sick even enemies should be helped. On the other hand, spies, saboteurs who wore fake military uniforms or civilian clothes, traitors should be caught, be handed over to the court-martial. They would be judged by a military tribunal in accordance with international law of war.

(5) military facilities, bridges, roads, destruction of railway lines, industrial facilities to be disabled, interrupting the stockpiling of food, these can only be done by all the military orders. these practices carried out by his arbitrary decisions, or to do what is the illegal acting.

(6) All Swiss, men and women, whether belonging to the army and not, when  at risk of his body, life an honor, he has the right of self-defense. No one can violate to these right.

"To prevent surprising attack" p233
Need to expose the deception of the enemy acts like this.
Switzerland never hold any ambitions of conquest to somewhere.
never attempt to attack other country, we wish peace only.
However, at present the world, in order to keep the peace, to maintain the current status  while servicing for other countries, not only by the military to ensure the safety of the country, Switzerland believe.
we will answer as follows to people who claims that never confront the powers where equipped with modern weapons.

"Experience prove the opposition" p233
Today, one tumultuous can involve  critically to put in many countries.
Therefore, we would be not alone extraordinary, not endure the strain of the attack, the attacker would be for us only part of their strength.
And if this kind of partial force size, we are able to fight back with equal strength. In addition, advancing in technology, it is needed the necessary to deploy troops sparse on the ground, thus is the favorable condition for us. Our defense is very easily by it.
we know that in order to disabuse our weapons, potential enemies need to waste a lot of extraordinary force than to subdue our country.
In the First World War, also in the Second World War, and we survived the attack it was not due to chance.

the Fortunately, it is for our indomitable fighting spirit and to protect themselves, by our military preparedness and effective.
In addition, examples of Finnish 1939~40, Israel in 1956 or 1967, proves our idea was correct. these small countries could defend himself, be able to maintain the national presence.

"Freedom and Responsibility" p237
Democracy respects the opinions of the individual.
One of the biggest advantages of this democracy.
Democracies can not intervene until the words of private individuals.
Press, radio and television are free.
Each person, in time of peace can go abroad without a little difficulty.
Each person can choose a party like his own.
"Free" the country where the phases is not empty word, a substantial fine free content, there is like that.



敵国の攻撃に対する、スイスの回避策 /  「民間防衛」より引用 P235