Chai, Alice Yun. "Asian-Pacific Feminist Coalition Politics: The Comfort Women Movement." Korean Studies v.17, 1993: 67-91.
Jimenez-David, Rina. "There Were Comfort Gays Too." Philippines Daily Inquirer, January 27, 2000.
Introduction: From Tradition to Modern Feminism
A Woman-Centered Perspective on Korean American Women Today by Young I. Song
A Critical Feminist Inquiry in a Multicultural Context by Sung Sil Lee Sohng
The Social Reality of Korean American Women: Toward Crashing with the Confucian Ideology by El-Hannah Kim
A Profile of Korean Women and Men in the United States
Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics of Korean American Women and Men by Ailee Moon
Demographic Characteristics and Trends of Post-1965 Korean Immigrant Women and Men by Pyong Gap Min and Young I. Song
Attitudes Toward Ethnic Identity, Marriage, and Familial Life among Women of Korean Descent in the United States, Japan, and Korea by Ailee Moon
Korean American Women Working outside of the Family
Work Status, Conjugal Power Relations, and Marital Satisfaction among Korean Immigrant Married Women by Hye Kyung Chang and Ailee Moon
The Burden of Labor on Korean American Wives in and Outside the Family by Pyong Gap Min
Family and Work Roles of Korean Immigrant Wives and Related Experiences by Kwang Chung Kim and Shin Kim
Korean American Identity
Searching for and Defining a Korean American Identity in a Multicultural Society by Luke I. Kim and Grace S. Kim
Intraethnic, Interracial, and Interethnic Marriages Among Korean American Women by Gin Yong Pang
Ethnic Identities Reflected in Value Orientation of Two Generations of Korean American Women by Ailee Moon and Young I. Song
Marriage and Family
Separation and Divorce among Korean Immigrant Families by Siyon Rhee
The Domestic Violence against Women in Korean Immigrant Families: Cultural, Psychological, and Socioeconomic Perspectives by Young I. Song and Ailee Moon
Korean American Mothers' Parenting Styles and Adolescent Behavior by Eunai Kim Shrake
Life Satisfaction of the Korean American Elderly by Young I. Song
Mental Health Issues
The Mental Health of Korean American Women by Luke I. Kim
Korean Women's Hwa-Byung: Clinical Issues and Implications for Treatment by Mikyong Kim-Goh
Issues for the Future
Korean Feminist and Human Rights Politics: The Chongshinedae/Jugunianfu ("Comfort Women") Movement by Alice Yun Chai
Revisioning of Family Reunions: A Case of Korean American Women and Their Families Separated by War by Sook Ja Paik and Dong Soo Kim
Modern Feminist Issues Facing Korean American Women: A Global Perspective by Young I. Song
Asian-Pacific Feminist Coalition Politics: The ChÅngshindae/JÅ«gunianfu ("Comfort Women") Movement
Alice Yun Chai
From: Korean Studies
Volume 17, 1993
pp. 67-91 | 10.1353/ks.1993.0001
This article examines the ChÅngshindae/JÅ«gunianfu issue from an Asian-Pacific feminist perspective. The ChÅngshindae/JÅ«gunianfu were women (primarily Korean) who were drafted by the Japanese military during the Pacific War, ostensibly to serve as laborers, but mostly to serve as sex slaves. They are referred to euphemistically as JÅ«gunianfu (military "comfort women") in Japanese, and ChÅngshindae (Women's Volunteer Labor Corps) in Korean. This article discusses (1) historical links between Japan's Pacific War military sex slaves and their contemporary parallels, (2) reasons why the military sex slavery issue has been buried for almost half a century, (3) the social context for politicization of the issue, and (4) global feminist and grassroots coalition politics: the ChÅngshindae/JÅ«gunianfu movement in Korea and Japan that has recently spread to other East and Southeast Asian countries.
"Comfort Women"/Military Sexual Slavery
Throughout history, soldiers have used rape and sexual slavery of women as effective weapons to control, destroy, and humiliate the enemy by violating its "property": women. Violence against women was justified as a reward for the fighting troops and considered inevitable. The Japanese military sexual slavery system established during its colonial expansion into China in the 1930s and lasting until the end of World War II is the most extreme and blatant case of this practice.
In the 1930s and 1940s, the Japanese government mobilized women in colonized countries (e.g., Korea, Taiwan) and occupied areas (e.g., China, the Philippines) by force or deceit, for use as sex slaves for the Japanese Imperial Army. The combined term military "comfort women"/military sex slaves refers to 80,000 to 200,000 women drafted for military sexual slavery by Japan between the early 1930s and 1945.
Approximately 80 percent of the military "comfort women"/sex slaves were Korean, but there were also Chinese, Taiwanese, Filipino, Burmese, Indonesian, Papua New Guinean, Japanese, Okinawan, and even some Dutch women prisoners from Indonesia.
According to the personal testimonies of survivors and government documents discovered since 1991, the use of sexual slaves, euphemistically called "comfort women," was long-term, systematic, and institutionalized state rape planned, designed, and enforced by the supreme commander of the Japanese Imperial Army. Military sexual slavery camps were managed by the army's Recreation Division, and military "comfort women"/sex slaves, classified as military supplies, were transported by the military transportation system.
Military sexual slavery camps were set up wherever army personnel were stationed: in Taiwan, Sakhalin, Burma (Myanmar), China, Manchuria, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Borneo, Papua New Guinea, Korea, Okinawa, and Japan. Camps could be found also on railroad and construction sites and at mines and war factories where large numbers of male laborers were working.
The system apparently began after the Manchuria Incident (1931) but was institutionalized after the Nanking Massacre (December 1937), in the hope that the army's providing a psychosexual outlet for its soldiers would prevent a repeat of the atrocity in which an estimated 115,000 Chinese civilians were killed, including 20,000 women who were reportedly raped and murdered.
In the beginning, the Japanese army drafted daughters of Korean coal miners in Kyushu, Japan. From 1938 onward, they recruited women from impoverished farm families in Kyungsang and Chulra provinces in the southern part of South Korea. As the war intensified and expanded, preteen and teenage women were drafted from factories and from middle and elementary schools all over Korea, and even married women and mothers with nursing infants were coerced into sexual slavery on Japan's battlefronts. These women worked without monetary compensation, were promised savings accounts at the end of the war that they never saw, or were paid with military coupons that became worthless after the war.
According to testimony from survivors, they were conscripted (1) by promises of jobs such as factory work, cooking, laundry work, domestic help, or nursing; (2) by the possibility of earning large sums of money to send home to their families and obtaining meals with "polished white rice," which only elite Japanese had access to; (3) by promising opportunities for formal education and technical training; (4) by threatening the family with drafting their sons if daughters were not offered; and (5) by hunting them down in public areas such as farm fields, public wells, roads, market areas, or even kidnapping from private homes.
Military "comfort women"/sex slaves were provided as royal gifts from the Emperor (Tenno). However, they were classified by the Japanese Imperial Army as military supplies in the same way as ammunition and food rations and identified by item numbers, not as human beings with names. The women, then, were used and discarded as supplies, without documentation of entry and/or exit (death), while the records for dogs and horses used by the army were meticulously kept. The women were placed in tiny cubicles partitioned by curtains, in tents, or in buildings with temporarily constructed wooden panels, unused school buildings, regular civilian houses, even on the hills at battlefields. They were gang-raped by an average of 20 to 30 soldiers during weekdays and, on weekends, between 40 to 50 or even up to 100 soldiers a day.
In order to protect the Japanese soldiers, military "comfort women"/sex slaves were given regular medical examinations for venereal disease and received injections called Number 606, which was also an effective abortifacient. Even though the soldiers were required to use condoms, many of the sexual slaves contracted venereal disease, usually within 6 to 12 months of their enslavement, in part, through the soldiers' refusal to use condoms, in part, because of the poor quality of recycled condoms, which were washed and hung to dry every day by the sex slaves themselves.
Almost invariably, women who had been deceived or kidnapped attempted to escape or to resist sexual assaults, with dire consequences. They were severely beaten or, in extreme cases, slashed to death with a sword in front of other sexual slaves as a warning against attempting escape or resistance.
According to Aso Tetsuo, a former Japanese Imperial Army gynecologist, the sex slaves were subjected to continuous gang rape at an average frequency interval of 5 to 10 minutes rather than the officially designated 30 minutes per soldier. During weekdays when they were not used for sex, they were obliged to do housekeeping chores, nursing, carrying military supplies, or even fighting in Japanese military uniform. Moreover, they were often used as human shields during last-ditch battles.
The ordeals of survivors did not come to an end with Japan's defeat in 1945. It was almost impossible for the survivors to return to Korea because the Japanese Imperial Army provided transportation only for their soldiers and civilian personnel. When Japanese soldiers returned to Japan or went into hiding, they left the women behind without informing them of Japan's surrender. They were simply abandoned, left to fend for themselves, without knowledge of where they were and without any resources. In some instances, to hide the evidence of their existence, they were driven to mass suicide along with the soldiers or massacred by being shoved into tunnels or piled into dungeons.
For those in China, the only way to return to Korea was by foot, spending many months without material resources such as clothes, shoes, and food and almost all of them suffering from ill health and sexual assault trauma.
The Korean women had been socialized in a Confucian society where virginity and chastity were considered more important than life itself. Some women committed suicide aboard civilian ships carrying them toward Korea rather than face a homecoming of degradation or lifelong social isolation. Those military "comfort women"/sexual slavery survivors who did return to Korea were unable to go back to their own home villages or to their families. Most led miserable and difficult lives. Some were captured as prisoners of war and served the Allied Occupational Forces as military prostitutes. Most military "comfort women"/sexual slavery survivors, suffering from mental and physical ill health, poverty, and inability to live as ordinary women (e.g., to marry and bear children), wished that they had died in the war.
The full extent of the sexual slavery system from 1932 to 1945 will remain unknown since the Japanese government destroyed most of the documents after the war and killed or deserted almost all of the military "comfort women"/sex slaves. Moreover, both the women survivors and Japanese Imperial Army personnel have either died or kept silent until recently.
In 1991, a 50-year silence was broken when Kim Hak Soon, a Korean military "comfort women"/sexual slavery survivor, publicly told her story. Now, approximately 1,000 survivors have come forward from all over the Asian and Pacific region and the Netherlands. They are working with activist groups to make Japan accountable for this crime against humanity.
Approximately 180 military "comfort women"/sexual slavery survivors who responded to the Korean government's registration system and the hot lines set up by the Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Sexual Slavery by Japan since 1992 are still suffering from the effects of their sexual enslavement. Venereal disease and other gynecological abnormalities, various physical disabilities, and mental illnesses remain as a lifelong result of the atrocities they experienced.
Despite their poverty, old age, and ill health, they, along with human rights activist groups, are working diligently at the United Nations (UN) Commission on Human Rights demanding that the Japanese government recognize its military sexual slavery as a war crime and violation of international humanitarian laws. They are demanding that the Japanese government publicly make apologies to the individual survivors and pay reparations. The survivors are now working toward one common goal: to die with the knowledge that they have helped to bring a genuine peace with justice to the whole Asian and Pacific region and to the world.
Contributed by: ALICE YUN CHAI
The Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan.
Alice Yun Chai, "Asian Pacific Feminist Coalition Politics: The Chongshindae/Jugunianfu (Comfort Women) Movement," Korean Studies, An Annual Publication of the Center for Korean Studies (University of Hawaii) 17 (1993): 67-91, George Hicks, Comfort Women: Sex Slaves of the Japanese Imperial Army (London, 1995).
Citation: Contributor last name, contributor first name. ""Comfort Women"/Military Sexual Slavery." In Women's Studies Encyclopedia, ed. Helen Tierney. Greenwood Press, 2002. today's date
Bibliography: Comfort Women
The bibliography that follows represents a general list of selected key works on the subject of "comfort women" in the Asia-Pacific during World War II. The literature is notable not just for its focus on the experiences of individual comfort women but also for its attention to the historiography—how and why this issue surfaced in the way it did beginning in the early 1990s and how it continues to preoccupy researchers and activists.
Ahmed, Afreen R. "The Shame of Hwang V. Japan: How the International Community Has Failed Asia's 'Comfort Women'." Texas Journal of Women & the Law 14, no. 1 (Fall 2004): 121-149.
Arakawa, Maki. "A New Forum for Comfort Women: Fighting Japan in United States Federal Court." Berkeley Women's Law Journal 16 (2001): 174-200.
Argibay, Carmen M. "Sexual Slavery and the "Comfort Women" of World War II." Berkeley Journal of International Law 21, no. 2 (2003): 375-389.
Asian Women's Fund, "The "Comfort Women" Issue and the Asian Women's Fund." Tokyo: Asian Women’s Fund, 2004. Available online at: http://www.awf.or.jp/pdf/0170.pdf
Askin, Kelly D. "Comfort Women: Shifting Shame and Stigma from Victims to Victimizers." International Criminal Law Review 1, no. 1/2 (January 2001): 5-32.
Barkan, Elazar. "Sex Slaves: Comfort Women and Japanese Guilt." In The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2000.
Berndt, Caroline M. "Popular Culture as Political Protest: Writing the Reality of Sexual Slavery." Journal of Popular Culture 31, no. 2 (Fall 1997): 177-187.
Boling, David. Mass Rape, Enforced Prostitution, and the Japanese Imperial Army: Japan Eschews International Legal Responsibility? Baltimore: University of Maryland School of Law, 1995.
Brooks, Roy L., ed. When Sorry Isn’t Enough: The Controversy over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice. New York: New York University Press, 1999.
Chai, Alice Yun. "Korean Feminist and Human Rights Politics: The Chongshindae/Jugunianfu ("Comfort Women") Movement." In Korean American Women: From Tradition to Modern Feminism, eds. Young L. Song and Ailee Moon. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998.
Choi, Chungmoo, ed. The Comfort Women: Colonialism, War, and Sex. Durham N.C.: Duke University Press, 1997.
Chou, Chih-Chieh. "An Emerging Transnational Movement in Women's Human Rights: Campaign of Nongovernmental Organizations on "Comfort Women" Issue in East Asia." Journal of Economic & Social Research 5, no. 1 (2003): 153-181.
Chuh, Kandice. "Discomforting Knowledge: Or, Korean "Comfort Women" and Asian Americanist Critical Practice." Journal of Asian American Studies 6, no. 1 (February 2003): 5-23.
Chung, Chin Sung. "The Origin and Development of the Military Sexual Slavery Problem in Imperial Japan." Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 5, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 219-253.
Chung, Hyun-Kyung. "'Your comfort versus my death': Korean comfort women." In War's Dirty Secret: Rape, Prostitution, and Other Crimes against Women, ed. Anne Llewellyn Barstow. Cleveland, OH: The Pilgrim Press, 2000: 13-25.
Coomeraswamy Report to the United Nations. "Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamv, in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 1994/45 Report on the mission to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea and Japan on the issue of military sexual slavery in wartime." January 4, 1996. Available at: http://www.comfort-women.org/coomaras.htm
Cumings, Bruce. "Why Memory Lingers in East Asia." Current History 107, no. 701 (September 2007): 257-262.
Dolgopol, Ustinia. "Women's Voices, Women's Pain." Human Rights Quarterly 17, no. 1 (February 1995): 127-155.
Dolgopol, Ustinia and Snehal Paranjape. Comfort Women: An Unfinished Ordeal: Report of a Mission. Geneva, Switzerland: International Commission of Jurists, 1994.
Dudden, Alexis. "We Came to Tell the Truth." Critical Asian Studies 33, no. 4 (December 2001): 591-602.
Fernandez, Ida Mae V., ed. International Symposium on Filipino Comfort Women: Papers and Proceedings. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Law Center, 1994.
Frühstück, Sabine. "Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During World War II." Feminist Review, no. 82 (2006): 137-138.
Hata, Ikuhiko. "No Organized or Forced Recruitment: Misconceptions about Comfort Women and the Japanese Military." Society for the Dissemination of Historical Fact (2007). Available at: http://www.sdh-fact.com/CL02_1/31_S4.pdf
Hata, Ikuhiko. "The Flawed U.N. Report on Comfort Women." In Women and Women’s Issues in post World War II Japan, ed. Edward R. Beauchamp. New York: Garland, 1998.
Hata, Ikuhiko. "The Flawed U.N. Report on Comfort Women." Japan Echo 23, no. 3 (Autumn 1996): 66-73.
Hayashi, Hirofumi. "Government, the Military and Business in Japan's Wartime Comfort Woman System." Japan Focus (January 2007). Available at: http://japanfocus.org/products/details/2332
Hayashi, Hirofumi. "Structure of Japanese Imperial Government involved in Military Comfort Women System." Nature People Society: Science and the Humanities 33 (July 2002). Available at: http://www32.ocn.ne.jp/~modernh/eng09-1.htm
Hayashi, Hirofumi. "The Japanese Movement to Protest Wartime Sexual Violence." Critical Asian Studies 33, no. 4 (December 2001): 572-580. Available at: http://www32.ocn.ne.jp/~modernh/eng17.htm
Hayashi, Hirofumi. "Survey of the Japanese Movement against Wartime Sexual Violence." Peace Studies Bulletin 20 (June 2000). Available at: http://www32.ocn.ne.jp/~modernh/eng07.htm
Hayashi, Hirofumi. "Japanese Comfort Women in Southeast Asia." Japan Forum 10, no. 2 (September 1998): 211-219. Available at: http://www32.ocn.ne.jp/~modernh/eng04.htm
Hein, Laura. "Savage Irony: The Imaginative Power of the Military Comfort Women in the 1990s." Gender and History 11, no. 2 (July 1999): 336-72.
Hicks, George. "The Comfort Women." In The Japanese Wartime Empire, 1931-1945, eds. Peter Duus, Ramon H. Myers, and Mark R. Peattie. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Hicks, George. The Comfort Women: Japan’s Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1994.
Howard, Keith. True Stories of the Korean Comfort Women: Testimonies. London: Cassell, 1995.
Hsu, Yvonne Park. "'Comfort Women' from Korea: Japan's World War II Sex Slaves and the Legitimacy of their Claims to Reparations." Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal 2, no. 1 (winter 1993): 97-129.
Kang, Hyun Yi. "Conjuring "Comfort Women": Mediated Affiliations and Disciplined Subjects in Korean/American Transnationality." Journal of Asian American Studies 6, no. 1 (February 2003): 25-55.
Keller, Nora Okja. Comfort Woman. London: Penguin, 1998.
Keith Howard, ed. True Stories of the Korean Comfort Women. London: Cassell, 1996.
Kim, Hyun Sook. "History and Memory: The 'Comfort Women' Controversy." Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 5, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 73-106.
Kim-Gibson. Dai Sil. Silence Broken: Korean Comfort Women. Parkersburg, Iowa: Mid-Prairie Books, 1999.
Kim-Gibson, Dai Sil. "They Are Our Grandmas." Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 5, no.1 (Spring 1997): 255-274.
Matsui, Yayori. "Women's International War Crimes Tribunal on Japan's Military Sexual Slavery: Memory, Identity, and Society." East Asia: An International Quarterly 19, no. 4 (Winter 2001): 119-142.
Mendoza, Katharina R. "Freeing the 'Slaves of Destiny': The Lolas of the Filipino Comfort Women Movement." Cultural Dynamics 15, no. 3 (November 2003): 247-266.
Min, Pyong Gap. "Korean 'Comfort Women': The Intersection of Colonial Power, Gender, and Class." Gender and Society 17, no. 6 (December 2003): 938-957.
Morris-Suzuki, Tessa and Peter Rimmer. "Virtual Memories: Japanese History Debates in Manga and Cyberspace." Asian Studies Review 26, no. 2 (June 2002): 147-164.
Nakahara, Michiko. "'Comfort Women' In Malaysia." Critical Asian Studies 33, no. 4 (December 2001): 581-589.
Nozaki, Yoshiko. "Feminism, Nationalism, and the Japanese Textbook Controversy over 'Comfort Women'." In Feminism and Antiracism: International Struggles for Justice, eds. France Winddance Twine and Kathleen M. Blee. New York: New York University Press, 2001.
Park, Won Soon. "Japanese Reparations Policies and the 'Comfort Women' Question." Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 5, no. 1 (spring 1997: 107-134.
Park, You-me. "Comforting the Nation: 'Comfort Women,' the Politics of Apology and the Workings of Gender." Interventions 2, no. 2 (July 2000): 199-211.
Piper, Nicola. "Transnational Women's Activism in Japan and Korea: The Unresolved Issue of Military Sexual Slavery." Global Networks 1, no. 2 (April 2001): 155-170.
Ruff-O'Herne, Jan. 50 Years of Silence. Sydney: Editions Tom Thompson, 1994.
Sajor, Indai Lourdes, ed. Common Grounds: Violence Against Women in War and Armed Conflict Situations. Quezon City, Philippines: Asian Center for Women’s Human Rights, 1998.
Sancho, Nelia. War Crimes on Asian Women: Military Sexual Slavery by Japan during World War II: The Case of the Filipino Comfort Women, Part II. Manila: Asian Women Human Rights Council, 1998.
Sancho, Nelia. "The 'Comfort Women' System during World War II: Asian Women as Targets of Mass Rape and Sexual Slavery by Japan." In Gender and Catastrophe, ed. Ronit Lentin. London: Zed Books, 1997.
Sand, Jordan. "Historians and Public Memory in Japan." History & Memory 11, no. 2 (Fall/Winter 1999): 116-128.
Schellstede, Sangmie Choi, ed. Comfort Women Speak: Testimony by Sex Slaves of the Japanese Military. New York: Holmes & Meier, 2000.
Seaton, Philip. "Reporting the 'Comfort Women' Issue, 1991-1992: Japan's Contested War Memories in the National Press." Japanese Studies 26, no. 1 (May 2006): 99-112.
Soh, C Sarah. "In/fertility among Korea's "Comfort Women" Survivors: A Comparative Perspective." Women’s Studies International Forum 29, no. 1 (January 2006): 67-80.
Soh, Sarah C. "Women's Sexual Labor and State in Korean History." Journal of Women’s History 15, no. 4 (Winter 2004): 170-177.
Soh, C Sarah. "Aspiring to Craft Modern Gendered Selves: 'Comfort Women' and Chôngsindae in Late Colonial Korea." Critical Asian Studies 36, no. 2 (June 2004): 175-198.
Soh, Sarah C. "Japan's National/Asian Women's Fund for 'Comfort Women'." Pacific Affairs 76, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 209-233.
Soh, C. Sarah. "Japan's Responsibility toward Comfort Women Survivors." Japan Policy Research Institute Working Paper 77 (May 2001). Available at: http://www.jpri.org/publications/workingpapers/wp77.html
Soh, Chunghee Sarah. "Prostitutes versus Sex Slaves: The Politics of Representing the 'Comfort Women'." In The Legacies of the Comfort Women of World War II, eds. Margaret Stetz and Bonnie Oh. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 2001: 69-87.
Soh, Chunghee Sarah. "Centering the Korean "Comfort Women" Survivors." Critical Asian Studies 33, no.4 (2001): 603-608.
Soh, Chunghee Sarah. "Human Rights and the 'Comfort Women'." Peace Review 12, no. 1 (March 2000): 123-129.
Soh, Chunghee Sarah. "From Imperial Gifts to Sex Slaves: Theorizing Symbolic Representations of the 'Comfort Women'." Social Science Japan Journal 3, no.1 (2000): 59-76.
Soh, Chunghee Sarah. "The Problem of "Comfort Women": The Intersections of Gender, Sexuality, Class, Ethnicity, and the State." In Cross-Cultural Communication East and West in the 90's. eds., Bates L. Hoffer and John H. Koo. San Antonio, TX: Institute for Cross-Cultural Research, 1998: 83-87
Soh, Chunghee Sarah. "The Korean "Comfort Women": Movement for Redress." Asian Survey 36, no. 12 (December 1996): 1227-1240.
Song, Youn-ok and Melissa L. Wender. "Japanese Colonial Rule and State-Managed Prostitution: Korea's Licensed Prostitutes." Positions 5, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 171-217.
Stetz, Margaret and Bonnie Oh, eds. Legacies of the Comfort Women of World War II. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2001.
Tanaka, Yuki. Japan’s Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery and Prostitution during World War II and the U.S. Occupation. London: Routledge, 2002.
Thoma, Pamela. "Cultural Autobiography, Testimonial, and Asian American Transnational Feminist Coalition in the "Comfort Women of World War II" Conference." Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 21, no. 1/2 (2000): 29-54.
Ueno, Chizuko. "The Politics of Memory." History & Memory 11, no. 2 (Fall/Winter 1999): 129-152.
Ueno, Chizuko. "The Japanese Responsibility for Military Rape During World War II." Asian Studies Review 17, no. 3 (1994): 102-107.
Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi. "Comfort Women: Beyond Litigious Feminism." Monumenta Nipponica 58, no. 2 (summer 2003): 223-258.
Watanabe, Kazuko. "Trafficking in Women's Bodies, Then and Now: The Issue of Military 'Comfort Women'." Women's Studies Quarterly 27, no. 1/2 (Spring/Summer 1999): 19-31.
Watanabe, Kazuko. "Trafficking in Women's Bodies, Then and Now." Peace & Change 20, no. 4 (October 1995): 501-514.
Watanabe, Kazuko. "Militarism, Colonialism, and the Trafficking of Women: 'Comfort Women' Forced into Sexual Labor for Japanese Soldiers." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 26, no. 4 (October-December 1994): 2-17.
Yang, Hyunah. "Re-membering the Korean Military Comfort Women: Nationalism, Sexuality, and Silencing." In Dangerous Women: Gender and Korean Nationalism, eds. Elaine H. Kim and Chungmoo Choi. New York: Routledge, 1998.
Yang, Hyunah. "Revisiting the Issue of Korean 'Military Comfort Women': The Question of Truth and Positionality." Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 5, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 51-71.
Yoshimi, Yoshiaki. Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military during World War II. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Yoshimi, Yoshiaki. The First [Second] Report on the Issue of Japan’s Military “Comfort Women”: Historical and Legal Study on the Issue of “Military Comfort Women.” Osaka: Center for Research and Documentation on Japan's War Responsibility, 1994.